IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/e/pxu72.html
   My authors  Follow this author

Yongdeng Xu

Personal Details

First Name:Yongdeng
Middle Name:
Last Name:Xu
Suffix:
RePEc Short-ID:pxu72
Aberconway Building, Colum Drive, CARDIFF, CF10 3EU

Affiliation

Economics Section
Cardiff Business School
Cardiff University

Cardiff, United Kingdom
http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/business-school/research/themes/economics

: +44 (0) 29 20874417
+44 (0) 29 20874419
Aberconway Building, Colum Drive, CARDIFF, CF10 3EU
RePEc:edi:ecscfuk (more details at EDIRC)

Research output

as
Jump to: Working papers Articles Books

Working papers

  1. Bauwens, Luc & Xu, Yongdeng, 2019. "DCC-HEAVY: a multivariate GARCH model based on realized variances and correlations," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2019/5, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
  2. Xu, Yongdeng & Taylor, Nick & Lu, Wenna, 2018. "Illiquidity and Volatility Spillover effects in Equity Markets during and after the Global Financial Crisis: an MEM approach," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2018/6, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
  3. Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2018. "Testing DSGE Models by indirect inference: a survey of recent findings," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2018/14, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
  4. Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2018. "The small sample properties of Indirect Inference in testing and estimating DSGE models," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2018/7, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
  5. Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael R. & Xu, Yongdeng, 2017. "Comparing different data descriptors in Indirect Inference tests on DSGE models," CEPR Discussion Papers 11816, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  6. Karanasos, Menelaos & Xu, Yongdeng, 2017. "Matrix Inequality Constraints for Vector (Asymmetric Power) GARCH/HEAVY Models and MEM with spillovers: some New (Mixture) Formulations," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2017/14, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
  7. Minford, Patrick & Xu, Yongdeng, 2017. "Classical or Gravity? Which trade model best matches the UK facts?," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2017/10, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
  8. Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2016. "Testing part of a DSGE model by Indirect Inference," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2016/12, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
  9. Phillip, Garry & Xu, Yongdeng, 2016. "Almost Unbiased Variance Estimation in Simultaneous Equation Models," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2016/10, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
  10. Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2016. "What is the truth about DSGE models? Testing by indirect inference," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2016/14, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
  11. Le, Vo Phuong Mai & Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael R. & Xu, Yongdeng, 2015. "Testing macro models by indirect inference: a survey for users," CEPR Discussion Papers 10766, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Minford, Patrick & Xu, Yongdeng & Zhou, Peng, 2014. "How good are out of sample forecasting Tests on DSGE models?," CEPR Discussion Papers 10239, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  13. Luintel, Kul B & Xu, Yongdeng, 2013. "Testing weak exogeneity in multiplicative error models," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2013/6, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
  14. Taylor, Nick & Xu, Yongdeng, 2013. "The logarithmic vector multiplicative error model: an application to high frequency NYSE stock data," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2013/7, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.

Articles

  1. Patrick Minford & Michael Wickens & Yongdeng Xu, 2019. "Testing Part of a DSGE Model by Indirect Inference," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 81(1), pages 178-194, February.
  2. Xu, Yongdeng & Taylor, Nick & Lu, Wenna, 2018. "Illiquidity and volatility spillover effects in equity markets during and after the global financial crisis: An MEM approach," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 208-220.
  3. Patrick Minford & Yongdeng Xu, 2018. "Classical or Gravity? Which Trade Model Best Matches the UK Facts?," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 579-611, July.
  4. Kul B. Luintel & Yongdeng Xu, 2017. "Testing weak exogeneity in multiplicative error models," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(10), pages 1617-1630, October.
  5. N. Taylor & Y. Xu, 2017. "The logarithmic vector multiplicative error model: an application to high frequency NYSE stock data," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(7), pages 1021-1035, July.
  6. Vo Le & David Meenagh & Patrick Minford & Michael Wickens & Yongdeng Xu, 2016. "Testing Macro Models by Indirect Inference: A Survey for Users," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 1-38, February.
  7. Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2016. "Comparing different data descriptors in Indirect Inference tests on DSGE models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 145(C), pages 157-161.
  8. Patrick Minford & Yongdeng Xu & Peng Zhou, 2015. "How Good are Out of Sample Forecasting Tests on DSGE Models?," Italian Economic Journal: A Continuation of Rivista Italiana degli Economisti and Giornale degli Economisti, Springer;Società Italiana degli Economisti (Italian Economic Association), vol. 1(3), pages 333-351, November.

Books

  1. Patrick Minford & Sakshi Gupta & Vo P.M. Le & Vidya Mahambare & Yongdeng Xu, 2015. "Should Britain Leave the EU?," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 16679.

Citations

Many of the citations below have been collected in an experimental project, CitEc, where a more detailed citation analysis can be found. These are citations from works listed in RePEc that could be analyzed mechanically. So far, only a minority of all works could be analyzed. See under "Corrections" how you can help improve the citation analysis.

Blog mentions

As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
  1. Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2016. "Testing part of a DSGE model by Indirect Inference," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2016/12, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.

    Mentioned in:

    1. Testing part of a DSGE model by Indirect Inference
      by Christian Zimmermann in NEP-DGE blog on 2016-12-21 22:16:52
  2. Phillip, Garry & Xu, Yongdeng, 2016. "Almost Unbiased Variance Estimation in Simultaneous Equation Models," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2016/10, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.

    Mentioned in:

    1. New Year's Reading
      by Dave Giles in Econometrics Beat: Dave Giles' Blog on 2016-12-31 20:20:00

Working papers

  1. Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2018. "Testing DSGE Models by indirect inference: a survey of recent findings," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2018/14, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.

    Cited by:

    1. Minford, Patrick & Ou, Zhirong & Zhu, Zheyi, 2019. "Can a small New Keynesian model of the world economy with risk-pooling match the facts?," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2019/10, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.

  2. Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2018. "The small sample properties of Indirect Inference in testing and estimating DSGE models," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2018/7, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.

    Cited by:

    1. Le, Vo Phuong Mai & Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick, 2019. "A long-commodity-cycle model of the world economy over a century and a half — Making bricks with little straw," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 503-518.

  3. Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael R. & Xu, Yongdeng, 2017. "Comparing different data descriptors in Indirect Inference tests on DSGE models," CEPR Discussion Papers 11816, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

    Cited by:

    1. Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2018. "The small sample properties of Indirect Inference in testing and estimating DSGE models," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2018/7, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    2. Le, Vo Phuong Mai & Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael R., 2013. "A Monte Carlo procedure for checking identification in DSGE models," CEPR Discussion Papers 9411, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2018. "Testing DSGE Models by indirect inference: a survey of recent findings," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2018/14, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    4. Anna Watson, 2019. "Financial Frictions, the Great Trade Collapse and International Trade over the Business Cycle," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 30(1), pages 19-64, February.
    5. Ponomarenko, Alexey, 2019. "A note on observational equivalence of micro assumptions on macro level," Economics Discussion Papers 2019-51, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).

  4. Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2016. "Testing part of a DSGE model by Indirect Inference," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2016/12, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.

    Cited by:

    1. Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2018. "Testing DSGE Models by indirect inference: a survey of recent findings," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2018/14, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.

  5. Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2016. "What is the truth about DSGE models? Testing by indirect inference," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2016/14, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.

    Cited by:

    1. Le, Vo Phuong Mai & Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael R., 2013. "A Monte Carlo procedure for checking identification in DSGE models," CEPR Discussion Papers 9411, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

  6. Le, Vo Phuong Mai & Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael R. & Xu, Yongdeng, 2015. "Testing macro models by indirect inference: a survey for users," CEPR Discussion Papers 10766, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

    Cited by:

    1. Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael R. & Xu, Yongdeng, 2017. "Comparing different data descriptors in Indirect Inference tests on DSGE models," CEPR Discussion Papers 11816, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Minford, Lucy & Meenagh, David, 2019. "Testing a model of UK growth: A role for R&D subsidies," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 152-167.
    3. Ernesto Carrella & Richard M. Bailey & Jens Koed Madsen, 2018. "Indirect inference through prediction," Papers 1807.01579, arXiv.org.
    4. Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick & Yang, Xiaoliang, 2018. "A heterogeneous-agent model of growth and inequality for the UK," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2018/17, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    5. Le, Vo Phuong Mai & Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick, 2017. "A note on news about the future: the impact on DSGE models and their VAR representation," CEPR Discussion Papers 11818, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Le, Vo Phuong Mai & Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick, 2019. "A long-commodity-cycle model of the world economy over a century and a half — Making bricks with little straw," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(C), pages 503-518.
    7. Le, Vo Phuong Mai & Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick, 2014. "Monetarism rides again? US monetary policy in a world of Quantitative Easing," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2014/22, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    8. Patrick Minford & Yongdeng Xu, 2018. "Classical or Gravity? Which Trade Model Best Matches the UK Facts?," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 579-611, July.
    9. Minford, Patrick & Ou, Zhirong & Zhu, Zheyi, 2019. "Can a small New Keynesian model of the world economy with risk-pooling match the facts?," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2019/10, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    10. Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2018. "The small sample properties of Indirect Inference in testing and estimating DSGE models," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2018/7, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    11. Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2016. "Testing part of a DSGE model by Indirect Inference," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2016/12, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    12. Le, Vo Phuong Mai & Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick, 2018. "Oil and Commodities Drive the World Business Cycle: A Long-Commodity-Cycle Model of the World Economy Over a Century and a Half," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2018/16, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    13. Le, Vo Phuong Mai & Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael R., 2013. "A Monte Carlo procedure for checking identification in DSGE models," CEPR Discussion Papers 9411, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    14. Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2016. "What is the truth about DSGE models? Testing by indirect inference," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2016/14, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    15. Minford, Patrick & Wang, Yi & Zhou, Peng, 2017. "Resolving the Public Sector Wage Premium Puzzle by Indirect Inference," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2017/13, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    16. Minford, Lucy & Meenagh, David, 2018. "Testing a model of UK growth - a causal role for R&D subsidies," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2018/3, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    17. Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2018. "Testing DSGE Models by indirect inference: a survey of recent findings," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2018/14, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    18. Xue, Dong & Minford, Patrick & Meenagh, David, 2018. "How Important are International Financial Market Imperfections for Foreign Exchange Rate Dynamics: A Study of the Sterling Exchange Rate," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2018/11, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    19. Michele Loberto & Chiara Perricone, 2015. "Does trend inflation make a difference?," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1033, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    20. Anna Watson, 2019. "Financial Frictions, the Great Trade Collapse and International Trade over the Business Cycle," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 30(1), pages 19-64, February.
    21. Minford, Lucy & Meenagh, David, 2018. "Supply-side policy and economic growth: A case study of the UK," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2018/10, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    22. Patrick Minford, 2016. "Testing Macro Models for Policy Use—An Insurrection in Applied Modelling," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 84(S1), pages 42-55, September.
    23. Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick & Oyekola, Olayinka, 2015. "Oil Prices and the Dynamics of Output and Real Exchange Rate," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2015/18, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.

  7. Minford, Patrick & Xu, Yongdeng & Zhou, Peng, 2014. "How good are out of sample forecasting Tests on DSGE models?," CEPR Discussion Papers 10239, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.

    Cited by:

    1. Minford, Patrick & Wang, Yi & Zhou, Peng, 2017. "Resolving the Public Sector Wage Premium Puzzle by Indirect Inference," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2017/13, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    2. Meenagh, David & Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2018. "Testing DSGE Models by indirect inference: a survey of recent findings," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2018/14, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    3. Michele Loberto & Chiara Perricone, 2015. "Does trend inflation make a difference?," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 1033, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.

  8. Taylor, Nick & Xu, Yongdeng, 2013. "The logarithmic vector multiplicative error model: an application to high frequency NYSE stock data," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2013/7, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.

    Cited by:

    1. Karanasos, Menelaos & Xu, Yongdeng, 2017. "Matrix Inequality Constraints for Vector (Asymmetric Power) GARCH/HEAVY Models and MEM with spillovers: some New (Mixture) Formulations," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2017/14, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    2. Fabrizio Cipollini & Giampiero M. Gallo & Edoardo Otranto, 2019. "Realized Volatility Forecasting: Robustness to Measurement Errors," Econometrics Working Papers Archive 2019_04, Universita' degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Statistica, Informatica, Applicazioni "G. Parenti".
    3. Xuehai Zhang, 2019. "A Box-Cox semiparametric multiplicative error model," Working Papers CIE 125, Paderborn University, CIE Center for International Economics.
    4. Fabrizio Cipollini & Giampiero M. Gallo & Alessandro Palandri, 2019. "Realized variance modeling: decoupling forecasting from estimation," Econometrics Working Papers Archive 2019_05, Universita' degli Studi di Firenze, Dipartimento di Statistica, Informatica, Applicazioni "G. Parenti".
    5. Xuehai Zhang, 2019. "A Box-Cox semiparametric multiplicative error model," Working Papers CIE 122, Paderborn University, CIE Center for International Economics.

Articles

  1. Patrick Minford & Michael Wickens & Yongdeng Xu, 2019. "Testing Part of a DSGE Model by Indirect Inference," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 81(1), pages 178-194, February.
    See citations under working paper version above.
  2. N. Taylor & Y. Xu, 2017. "The logarithmic vector multiplicative error model: an application to high frequency NYSE stock data," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(7), pages 1021-1035, July.
    See citations under working paper version above.
  3. Vo Le & David Meenagh & Patrick Minford & Michael Wickens & Yongdeng Xu, 2016. "Testing Macro Models by Indirect Inference: A Survey for Users," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 27(1), pages 1-38, February.
    See citations under working paper version above.
  4. Minford, Patrick & Wickens, Michael & Xu, Yongdeng, 2016. "Comparing different data descriptors in Indirect Inference tests on DSGE models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 145(C), pages 157-161.
    See citations under working paper version above.
  5. Patrick Minford & Yongdeng Xu & Peng Zhou, 2015. "How Good are Out of Sample Forecasting Tests on DSGE Models?," Italian Economic Journal: A Continuation of Rivista Italiana degli Economisti and Giornale degli Economisti, Springer;Società Italiana degli Economisti (Italian Economic Association), vol. 1(3), pages 333-351, November.
    See citations under working paper version above.Sorry, no citations of articles recorded.

Books

  1. Patrick Minford & Sakshi Gupta & Vo P.M. Le & Vidya Mahambare & Yongdeng Xu, 2015. "Should Britain Leave the EU?," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 16679.

    Cited by:

    1. Vikash Ramiah & Huy N. A. Pham & Imad Moosa, 2017. "The sectoral effects of Brexit on the British economy: early evidence from the reaction of the stock market," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(26), pages 2508-2514, June.
    2. Jovanovic, Miroslav & Damnjanovic, Jelena & Njegic, Jovan, 2018. "Among the Central and Eastern European Countries of the European Union, who Gained and who Lost?," Economia Internazionale / International Economics, Camera di Commercio Industria Artigianato Agricoltura di Genova, vol. 71(3), pages 317-370.
    3. Crafts, Nicholas, 2019. "The Fall in UK Potential Output due to the Financial Crisis: a Much Bigger Estimate," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 399, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
    4. Vo Phuong Mai Le & Patrick Minford & Eric Nowell, 2011. "Measuring the Extent and Costs of EU Protectionism," Chapters, in: Miroslav N. Jovanović (ed.), International Handbook on the Economics of Integration, Volume III, chapter 15, Edward Elgar Publishing.

More information

Research fields, statistics, top rankings, if available.

Statistics

Access and download statistics for all items

Co-authorship network on CollEc

NEP Fields

NEP is an announcement service for new working papers, with a weekly report in each of many fields. This author has had 18 papers announced in NEP. These are the fields, ordered by number of announcements, along with their dates. If the author is listed in the directory of specialists for this field, a link is also provided.
  1. NEP-ECM: Econometrics (11) 2013-05-05 2013-05-05 2014-08-09 2015-08-19 2016-11-20 2016-12-18 2017-01-01 2017-02-19 2017-11-12 2018-07-09 2019-02-25. Author is listed
  2. NEP-DGE: Dynamic General Equilibrium (10) 2014-08-09 2014-12-29 2015-08-19 2016-12-18 2017-01-01 2017-02-19 2017-02-19 2017-02-19 2018-03-19 2018-07-09. Author is listed
  3. NEP-MAC: Macroeconomics (9) 2014-08-09 2014-12-29 2015-08-19 2015-08-30 2016-12-18 2017-01-01 2017-02-19 2018-03-19 2018-07-09. Author is listed
  4. NEP-ETS: Econometric Time Series (5) 2013-05-05 2013-05-05 2014-08-09 2018-03-19 2019-02-25. Author is listed
  5. NEP-FOR: Forecasting (3) 2014-08-09 2014-12-29 2019-02-25
  6. NEP-INT: International Trade (3) 2013-05-05 2017-09-10 2018-02-12
  7. NEP-GER: German Papers (1) 2015-08-30
  8. NEP-KNM: Knowledge Management & Knowledge Economy (1) 2018-07-09
  9. NEP-MST: Market Microstructure (1) 2013-05-05
  10. NEP-RMG: Risk Management (1) 2016-11-20

Corrections

All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. For general information on how to correct material on RePEc, see these instructions.

To update listings or check citations waiting for approval, Yongdeng Xu should log into the RePEc Author Service.

To make corrections to the bibliographic information of a particular item, find the technical contact on the abstract page of that item. There, details are also given on how to add or correct references and citations.

To link different versions of the same work, where versions have a different title, use this form. Note that if the versions have a very similar title and are in the author's profile, the links will usually be created automatically.

Please note that most corrections can take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.