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Red de comercio departamental en Colombia: Enfoque gravitacional y análisis topológico de redes

Author

Listed:
  • Diana María Cortázar-Gómez

    () (Banco de la República de Colombia)

  • Juan F. Pineda-Guarín

    ()

Abstract

En este documento se estudian los flujos de comercio intra e inter departamental en Colombia para el periodo 2015-2018. Utilizando los datos del volumen de carga transportada por vía terrestre, se efectúa un análisis topológico de redes que permite construir, analizar y visualizar la estructura de la Red de Comercio Departamental en Colombia (RCD). Se aprecia una RCD con una estructura centro-periferia, concentrada en seis departamentos, que además, ejercen una fuerte relación entre ellos. Se destaca Buenaventura como el segundo nodo que envía más carga hacia las otras zonas del país, después de Cundinamarca, pero con una balanza deficitaria en cantidades. Por su parte, Bogotá se ubica como el mayor receptor de carga transportada por vía terrestre interdepartamentalmente. En cuanto a las conexiones autodirigidas, Antioquia y Valle del Cauca (sin Buenaventura) presentan un grado elevado de comercio intradepartamental. En términos de conectividad, se visualiza una red con alta integración en cuanto a las conexiones existentes entre los departamentos, pero un bajo grado en cuanto a la fuerza de dichas relaciones, la cual depende del volumen de carga comerciado. Por otro lado, los modelos gravitacionales estimados sugieren que el flujo de comercio depende positivamente del Producto Interno Bruto de origen y destino, los departamentos que colindan entre sí, los puertos marítimos y las zonas francas, pero negativamente de la distancia. **** ABSTRACT: This document studies intra and inter-departmental trade flows in Colombia for the period 2015-2018. Network analysis is carried out to build, visualize and study the structure of the system. Finding to explain the determinants of the structure presented by the Departamental Trade Network (DTN), the hypothesis of the gravity model is contrasted. In general, the results show that the DTN is dense, and on average the departments are well integrated in the extensive margin of trade. However, when observing the intensive margin, the level of integration is low and trade is concentrated in few departments. The DTN presents a center-periphery structure, where the hierarchy is led by 6 nodes. Buenaventura stands out as a maritime port with a trade deficit in quantities, related to the absence of strengthened export baskets in the departments. Bogotá also stands out as the main transport node receiving merchandise. The gravity model suggest that the trade flows depends positively on the Gross Domestic Product of origin and destination, the departments that border each other, the maritime ports, the free zones, and also negatively on the distance..

Suggested Citation

  • Diana María Cortázar-Gómez & Juan F. Pineda-Guarín, 2019. "Red de comercio departamental en Colombia: Enfoque gravitacional y análisis topológico de redes," Documentos de trabajo sobre Economía Regional y Urbana 285, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdr:region:285
    DOI: https://doi.org/10.32468/dtseru.285
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Colombia; comercio interno; transporte terrestre de carga; topología de redes; modelo gravitacional; Colombia; intra-national trade; freight transport; network analysis; gravity model;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • R1 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics
    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade
    • D85 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Network Formation
    • C5 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling

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