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Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle*

* This paper has been replicated

Author

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  • James E. Anderson
  • Eric van Wincoop

Abstract

Gravity equations have been widely used to infer trade flow effects of various institutional arrangements. We show that estimated gravity equations do not have a theoretical foundation. This implies both that estimation suffers from omitted variables bias and that comparative statics analysis is unfounded. We develop a method that (i) consistently and efficiently estimates a theoretical gravity equation and (ii) correctly calculates the comparative statics of trade frictions. We apply the method to solve the famous McCallum border puzzle. Applying our method, we find that national borders reduce trade between industrialized countries by moderate amounts of 20-50 percent.

Suggested Citation

  • James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2003. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 170-192, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:aea:aecrev:v:93:y:2003:i:1:p:170-192
    Note: DOI: 10.1257/000282803321455214
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Replication

    This item has been replicated by:
  • Balistreri, Edward J. & Hillberry, Russell H., 2007. "Structural estimation and the border puzzle," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 451-463, July.
  • More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F1 - International Economics - - Trade

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    This item is featured on the following reading lists, Wikipedia, or ReplicationWiki pages:
    1. Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle (AER 2003) in ReplicationWiki

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