The Trade-FDI Nexus: Evidence from the European Union
The objective of this paper is to examine the relationship between international trade and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) empirically. It analyses whether the reduction of trade barriers over time has increased FDI for the particular case of the European Union (EU) during the period from 1995 to 2009. To analyze this issue the authors estimate in first place the European Border Effect by means of a gravity equation. Once the border effect is obtained we test whether there is a positive (complementary) or negative (substitution) relationship between this border effect and the FDI within the European countries. A gravity model for trade and FDI is estimated using the Poisson pseudo-maximum likelihood. The results suggest that there is a positive and decreasing border effect up to 2007 while it turns upward for 2008 and 2009, offsetting the previous decline. For the particular case of the EU, commercial integration and FDI reinforce each other, thus being complements rather than substitutes. In addition to trade integration measures, this paper also analyzes the potential role of other traditional determinants of FDI, as the market size of the host country and the cost differential among home-host economies. Cost differentials are not as relevant as the possibility of gaining market share which leads us to conclude that in the EU the FDI pattern follows a market-seeking strategy rather than a cost-efficient model.
|Date of creation:||2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Phone: (34) 964728590-92
Fax: (34) 964728591
Web page: http://www.doctreballeco.uji.es/Email:
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- McCallum, John, 1995. "National Borders Matter: Canada-U.S. Regional Trade Patterns," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 615-23, June.
- James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2003.
"Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 170-192, March.
- James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2000. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," Boston College Working Papers in Economics 485, Boston College Department of Economics.
- James E. Anderson & Eric van Wincoop, 2001. "Gravity with Gravitas: A Solution to the Border Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 8079, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Markusen, James R & Maskus, Keith E, 2002.
"Discriminating among Alternative Theories of the Multinational Enterprise,"
Review of International Economics,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 10(4), pages 694-707, November.
- James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 1999. "Discriminating Among Alternative Theories of the Multinational Enterprise," NBER Working Papers 7164, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Bruce A. Blonigen, 1999.
"In Search of Substitution Between Foreign Production and Exports,"
NBER Working Papers
7154, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Blonigen, Bruce A., 2001. "In search of substitution between foreign production and exports," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(1), pages 81-104, February.
- Joao Santos Silva & Silvana Tenreyro, 2005.
"The Log of Gravity,"
CEP Discussion Papers
dp0701, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Joao Santos Silva & Silvana Tenreyro, 2005. "The log of gravity," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 3744, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
- Santos Silva, J.M.C & Tenreyro, Silvana, 2005. "The Log of Gravity," CEPR Discussion Papers 5311, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Neary, J Peter, 2006.
"Trade Costs and Foreign Direct Investment,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
5933, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Motta, Massimo & Norman, George, 1996.
"Does Economic Integration Cause Foreign Direct Investment?,"
International Economic Review,
Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 37(4), pages 757-83, November.
- Massimo Motta & George Norman, 1993. "Does economic integration cause foreign direct investment?," Economics Working Papers 28, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
- John F. Helliwell, 1995.
"Do National Borders Matter for Quebec's Trade?,"
NBER Working Papers
5215, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Dunning, John H, 1973. "The Determinants of International Production," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(3), pages 289-336, November.
- Thierry Mayer & Keith Head, 2002. "Illusory Border Effects: Distance Mismeasurement Inflates Estimates of Home Bias in Trade," Working Papers 2002-01, CEPII research center.
- Gabrielle Lipworth & Tamim Bayoumi, 1997.
"Japanese Foreign Direct Investment and Regional Trade,"
IMF Working Papers
97/103, International Monetary Fund.
- Bayoumi, Tamim & Lipworth, Gabrielle, 1998. "Japanese foreign direct investment and regional trade," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 581-607.
- V. N. Balasubramanyam & M. Salisu & David Sapsford, 1999. "Foreign direct investment as an engine of growth," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(1), pages 27-40.
- Brainard, S Lael, 1997. "An Empirical Assessment of the Proximity-Concentration Trade-off between Multinational Sales and Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 520-44, September.
- Jörn Kleinert & Farid Toubal, 2010.
"Gravity for FDI,"
Review of International Economics,
Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(1), pages 1-13, 02.
- Kleinert, Jörn & Toubal, Farid, 2005. "Gravity for FDI," Center for European, Governance and Economic Development Research Discussion Papers 46, University of Goettingen, Department of Economics.
- Kleinert, Jörn & Toubal, Farid, 2007. "Gravity for FDI," Tübinger Diskussionsbeiträge 313, University of Tübingen, School of Business and Economics.
- Liu, Xiaoyun & Whalley, John & Xin, Xian, 2010. "Non-tradable goods and the border effect puzzle," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 909-914, September.
- Shang-Jin Wei, 1996. "Intra-National versus International Trade: How Stubborn are Nations in Global Integration?," NBER Working Papers 5531, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Linda S. Goldberg & Michael W. Klein, 1999.
"International trade and factor mobility: an empirical investigation,"
81, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
- Linda S. Goldberg & Michael W. Klein, 1999. "International Trade and Factor Mobility: An Empirical Investigation," NBER Working Papers 7196, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Volker Nitsch, 2000. "National borders and international trade: evidence from the European Union," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 33(4), pages 1091-1105, November.
- Jonathan Eaton & Akiko Tamura, 1996.
"Japanese and U.S. Exports and Investment as Conduits of Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
5457, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jonathan Eaton & Akiko Tamura, 1996. "Japanese and U.S. Exports and Investment as Conduits of Growth," NBER Chapters, in: Financial Deregulation and Integration in East Asia, NBER-EASE Volume 5, pages 51-75 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jonathan Eaton & Akiko Tamura, 1995. "Japanese and U.S. Exports and Investment as Conduits of Growth," Boston University - Institute for Economic Development 70, Boston University, Institute for Economic Development.
- Keith Head & John Ries, 2001. "Increasing Returns versus National Product Differentiation as an Explanation for the Pattern of U.S.-Canada Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 858-876, September.
- Bergstrand, Jeffrey H. & Egger, Peter, 2007. "A knowledge-and-physical-capital model of international trade flows, foreign direct investment, and multinational enterprises," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(2), pages 278-308, November.
- Ana Cuadros & Vicente Orts & Maite Alguacil, 2004. "Openness and Growth: Re-Examining Foreign Direct Investment, Trade and Output Linkages in Latin America," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(4), pages 167-192.
- Jamuna Agarwal, 1980. "Determinants of foreign direct investment: A survey," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer, vol. 116(4), pages 739-773, December.
- Feenstra, Robert C, 2002. "Border Effects and the Gravity Equation: Consistent Methods for Estimation," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 49(5), pages 491-506, December.
- Deborah L. Swenson, 2004. "Foreign Investment and the Mediation of Trade Flows," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(4), pages 609-629, 09.
- Paul Brenton & Francesca Di Mauro & Matthias LÃ¼cke, 1999.
"Economic Integration and FDI: An Empirical Analysis of Foreign Investment in the EU and in Central and Eastern Europe,"
Springer, vol. 26(2), pages 95-121, June.
- Brenton, Paul & DiMauro, Francesca & Lücke, Matthias, 1998. "Economic integration and FDI: an empirical analysis of foreign investment in the EU and in Central and Eastern Europe," Kiel Working Papers 890, Kiel Institute for the World Economy.
- Sanna-Randaccio, Francesca, 1996. "New protectionism and multinational companies," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1-2), pages 29-51, August.
- Gourieroux Christian & Monfort Alain & Trognon A, 1981.
"Pseudo maximum likelihood methods : theory,"
CEPREMAP Working Papers (Couverture Orange)
- Chen, Natalie, 2004.
"Intra-national versus international trade in the European Union: why do national borders matter?,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 93-118, May.
- Chen, Natalie, 2002. "Intra-national versus International Trade in the European Union: Why do National Borders Matter?," CEPR Discussion Papers 3407, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Anderson, James E, 1979. "A Theoretical Foundation for the Gravity Equation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(1), pages 106-16, March.
- Bergstrand, Jeffrey H, 1985. "The Gravity Equation in International Trade: Some Microeconomic Foundations and Empirical Evidence," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(3), pages 474-81, August.
- Balasubramanyam, V N & Sapsford, David & Griffiths, David, 2002. "Regional Integration Agreements and Foreign Direct Investment: Theory and Preliminary Evidence," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 70(3), pages 460-82, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:jau:wpaper:2013/15. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (María Aurora Garcia Gallego)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.