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Japanese and U.S. Exports and Investment as Conduits of Growth

In: Financial Deregulation and Integration in East Asia, NBER-EASE Volume 5

  • Jonathan Eaton
  • Akiko Tamura

We develop a simple model of the choice between exploiting a technology in another country via export and via direct foreign investment. The model points to the destination country's size, level of technological sophistication, and distance from the source as factors in the decision. Moreover, it suggests that the effects of these variables may not only be nonhomogeneous but nonmonotonic as well. We use the model as a basis for estimating Japanese and U.S. exports and DFI positions around the world. Consistent with the theory we find that the importance of DFI relative to exports grows with population, although, contrary to our theory, the elasticity of DFI, as well as exports, with respect to population is less than one. We find that distance tends to inhibit DFI much less than it inhibits exports, as our theory predicts. We find some tendency for Japanese exports to rise relative to DFI as countries become more advanced with U.S. exports and DFI exhibiting the opposite tendency. Taking population, per capita income, factor endowments, and distance into account, we Japan to be more open to U.S. exports than any region in the world except East Asia.

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This chapter was published in:
  • Takatoshi Ito & Anne O. Krueger, 1996. "Financial Deregulation and Integration in East Asia, NBER-EASE Volume 5," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number ito_96-1, May.
  • This item is provided by National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc in its series NBER Chapters with number 8558.
    Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberch:8558
    Contact details of provider: Postal: National Bureau of Economic Research, 1050 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A.
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    Web page: http://www.nber.orgEmail:


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    1. Markusen, James R., 1984. "Multinationals, multi-plant economies, and the gains from trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3-4), pages 205-226, May.
    2. Dixit, Avinash K & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1977. "Monopolistic Competition and Optimum Product Diversity," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(3), pages 297-308, June.
    3. Drysdale, Peter & Garnaut, Ross, 1982. "Trade Intensities and the Analysis of Bilateral Trade Flows in a Many-Country World : A Survey," Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, Hitotsubashi University, vol. 22(2), pages 62-84, February.
    4. Deardorff, Alan V., 1984. "Testing trade theories and predicting trade flows," Handbook of International Economics, in: R. W. Jones & P. B. Kenen (ed.), Handbook of International Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 10, pages 467-517 Elsevier.
    5. S. Lael Brainard, 1993. "An Empirical Assessment of the Factor Proportions Explanation of Multi-National Sales," NBER Working Papers 4583, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Jonathan Eaton & Samuel Kortum, 1994. "International Patenting and Technology Diffusion," NBER Working Papers 4931, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. S. Lael Brainard, 1993. "An Empirical Assessment of the Proximity-Concentration Tradeoff between Multinational Sales and Trade," NBER Working Papers 4580, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    8. Purvis, Douglas D, 1972. "Technology, Trade and Factor Mobility," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 82(327), pages 991-99, September.
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