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The impact of COVID-19 pandemic upon stability and sequential irregularity of equity and cryptocurrency markets

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  • Lahmiri, Salim
  • Bekiros, Stelios

Abstract

We explore the evolution of the informational efficiency in 45 cryptocurrency markets and 16 international stock markets before and during COVID-19 pandemic. The measures of Largest Lyapunov Exponent (LLE) based on the Rosenstein's method and Approximate Entropy (ApEn), which are robust to small samples, are applied to price time series in order to estimate degrees of stability and irregularity in cryptocurrency and international stock markets. The amount of regularity infers on the unpredictability of fluctuations. The t-test and F-test are performed on estimated LLE and ApEn. In total, 36 statistical tests are performed to check for differences between time periods (pre- versus during COVID-19 pandemic samples) on the one hand, as well as check for differences between markets (cryptocurrencies versus stocks), on the other hand. During the COVID-19 pandemic period it was found that (a) the level of stability in cryptocurrency markets has significantly diminished while the irregularity level significantly augmented, (b) the level of stability in international equity markets has not changed but gained more irregularity, (c) cryptocurrencies became more volatile, (d) the variability in stability and irregularity in equities has not been affected, (e) cryptocurrency and stock markets exhibit a similar degree of stability in price dynamics, whilst finally (f) cryptocurrency exhibit a low level of regularity compared to international equity markets. We find that cryptos showed more instability and more irregularity during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to international stock markets. Thus, from an informational efficiency perspective, investing in digital assets during big crises as the COVID-19 pandemic, could be considered riskier as opposed to equities.

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  • Lahmiri, Salim & Bekiros, Stelios, 2020. "The impact of COVID-19 pandemic upon stability and sequential irregularity of equity and cryptocurrency markets," Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Elsevier, vol. 138(C).
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:chsofr:v:138:y:2020:i:c:s0960077920303350
    DOI: 10.1016/j.chaos.2020.109936
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    Cited by:

    1. Falik Shear & Badar Nadeem Ashraf & Mohsin Sadaqat, 2020. "Are Investors’ Attention and Uncertainty Aversion the Risk Factors for Stock Markets? International Evidence from the COVID-19 Crisis," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(1), pages 1-15, December.
    2. Iqbal, Najaf & Fareed, Zeeshan & Wan, Guangcai & Shahzad, Farrukh, 2021. "Asymmetric nexus between COVID-19 outbreak in the world and cryptocurrency market," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 73(C).
    3. Ender Demir & Mehmet Huseyin Bilgin & Gokhan Karabulut & Asli Cansin Doker, 2020. "The relationship between cryptocurrencies and COVID-19 pandemic," Eurasian Economic Review, Springer;Eurasia Business and Economics Society, vol. 10(3), pages 349-360, September.
    4. James, Nick & Menzies, Max & Chan, Jennifer, 2021. "Changes to the extreme and erratic behaviour of cryptocurrencies during COVID-19," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 565(C).
    5. Nick James, 2021. "Dynamics, behaviours, and anomaly persistence in cryptocurrencies and equities surrounding COVID-19," Papers 2101.00576, arXiv.org, revised Feb 2021.
    6. Nick James & Max Menzies, 2021. "Efficiency of communities and financial markets during the 2020 pandemic," Papers 2104.02318, arXiv.org, revised Jul 2021.
    7. Lahmiri, Salim & Bekiros, Stelios, 2020. "Renyi entropy and mutual information measurement of market expectations and investor fear during the COVID-19 pandemic," Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Elsevier, vol. 139(C).
    8. James, Nick, 2021. "Dynamics, behaviours, and anomaly persistence in cryptocurrencies and equities surrounding COVID-19," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 570(C).
    9. Behnood, Ali & Mohammadi Golafshani, Emadaldin & Hosseini, Seyedeh Mohaddeseh, 2020. "Determinants of the infection rate of the COVID-19 in the U.S. using ANFIS and virus optimization algorithm (VOA)," Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Elsevier, vol. 139(C).

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