Using longitudinal data to evaluate publicly provided formal education for low skilled
Modern societies would potentially reap large benefits from upgrading low skilled's education. However, this is difficult to put into practice because employers are reluctant to train low skilled and because low skilled are unwilling to participate. To circumvent this potential market imperfection, a large supply of formal education in Sweden is complemented with the eligibility of enrollees for financial support. This study uses detailed data on Swedish siblings aged 24–43 in 1994 to evaluate the impact on annual earnings. The estimated average return was 4.4% in 2004. Calculations indicate that this is barely sufficient to cover society's total costs.
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