Estimating the Returns to Community College Schooling for Displaced Workers
Studies show that high-tenure displaced workers typically incur substantial long-term earnings losses. As these losses have become increasingly apparent, policy makers have significantly expanded resources for retraining, much of which takes place in regular community college classes. To analyze the effectiveness of such training, we link administrative earnings records with the community college transcript records of workers displaced from jobs during the first half of the 1990s in Washington State. We explore several issues of statistical specification for regression models quantifying the impact of community college credits on earnings. These include (i) how to allow for a transition period immediately after the end of workers’ schooling when their earnings may be temporarily depressed, (ii) whether earnings gains are strictly proportional to credits earned, and (iii) how to model worker-specific unobserved heterogeneity. In our preferred specification, we find that the equivalent of an academic year of community college schooling raises the long-term earnings of displaced workers by an average of about 9 percent for men and about 13 percent for women. However, these average returns mask substantial variation in the returns associated with different types of courses. On the one hand, we estimate that an academic year of more technically oriented vocational and academic math and science courses raise earnings by about 14 percent for men and 29 percent for women. On the other hand, we estimate that less technically oriented courses yield very low and possibly zero returns. About one third of the increase in earnings associated with more technically oriented vocational and academic math and science courses is estimated to be due to increases in wage rates, with the remainder attributable to increased hours of work.
|Date of creation:||Feb 2004|
|Date of revision:|
|Publication status:||published in: Journal of Econometrics, 2005, 125 (1), 271-304|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: IZA, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Phone: +49 228 3894 223
Fax: +49 228 3894 180
Web page: http://www.iza.org
|Order Information:|| Postal: IZA, Margard Ody, P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany|
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Henry S. Farber, 1997. "The Changing face of Job Loss in the United States, 1981-1995," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 28(1997 Micr), pages 55-142.
- Ashenfelter, Orley & Card, David, 1985.
"Using the Longitudinal Structure of Earnings to Estimate the Effect of Training Programs,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 67(4), pages 648-60, November.
- Orley Ashenfelter & David Card, 1984. "Using the Longitudinal Structure of Earnings to Estimate the Effect of Training Programs," NBER Working Papers 1489, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Henry S. Farber, 1997. "The Changing Face of Job Loss in the United States, 1981-1995," Working Papers 761, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
- Lori G. Kletzer, 1998. "Job Displacement," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 12(1), pages 115-136, Winter.
- Thomas J. Kane & Cecilia Elena Rouse, 1999. "The Community College: Educating Students at the Margin between College and Work," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 13(1), pages 63-84, Winter.
- Howard S. Bloom, 1984. "Estimating the Effect of Job-Training Programs, Using Longitudinal Data: Ashenfelter's Findings Reconsidered," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 19(4), pages 544-556.
- Louis S. Jacobson & Robert J. LaLonde & Daniel Sullivan, 1992.
"Earnings Losses of Displaced Workers,"
Upjohn Working Papers and Journal Articles
92-11, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
- repec:mpr:mprres:3005 is not listed on IDEAS
- Ruhm, Christopher J, 1991. "Are Workers Permanently Scarred by Job Displacements?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 81(1), pages 319-24, March.
- Bruce C. Fallick, 1995. "A review of the recent empirical literature on displaced workers," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 95-14, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Freeman, Richard B, 1974. "Occupational Training in Proprietary Schools and Technical Institutes," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 56(3), pages 310-18, August.
- Ashenfelter, Orley C, 1978. "Estimating the Effect of Training Programs on Earnings," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 60(1), pages 47-57, February.
- Heckman, James J. & Robb, Richard Jr., 1985. "Alternative methods for evaluating the impact of interventions : An overview," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1-2), pages 239-267.
- Robert J. LaLonde, 2003. "Employment and Training Programs," NBER Chapters, in: Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the United States, pages 517-586 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Christopher J OLeary Paul T Decker Stephen A Wandner, 2002.
"Targeting Reemployment Bonuses,"
Mathematica Policy Research Reports
67fc970607294ed5af434a07e, Mathematica Policy Research.
- Christopher J. O'Leary & Paul T. Decker & Stephen A. Wandner, 2002. "Targeting Reemployment Bonuses," Book chapters authored by Upjohn Institute researchers, in: Stephen A. Wandner & Randall W. Eberts & Christopher J. O'Leary (ed.), Targeting Employment Services, chapter 6, pages 161-182 W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
- Angrist, Joshua D & Newey, Whitney K, 1991. "Over-Identification Tests in Earnings Functions with Fixed Effects," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 9(3), pages 317-23, July.
- Bruce C. Fallick, 1996. "A Review of the Recent Empirical Literature on Displaced Workers," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 50(1), pages 5-16, October.
- James J. Heckman, 1989.
"Choosing Among Alternative Nonexperimental Methods for Estimating the Impact of Social Programs: The Case of Manpower Training,"
NBER Working Papers
2861, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Heckman, J.J. & Hotz, V.J., 1988. "Choosing Among Alternative Nonexperimental Methods For Estimating The Impact Of Social Programs: The Case Of Manpower Training," University of Chicago - Economics Research Center 88-12, Chicago - Economics Research Center.
- Louis S. Jacobson & Robert J. LaLonde & Daniel G. Sullivan, 1993. "Long-term earnings losses of high-seniority displaced workers," Economic Perspectives, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, issue Nov, pages 2-20.
- Kane, Thomas J & Rouse, Cecilia Elena, 1995. "Labor-Market Returns to Two- and Four-Year College," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 85(3), pages 600-614, June.
- Browning, Edgar K, 1987. "On the Marginal Welfare Cost of Taxation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 77(1), pages 11-23, March.
- repec:fth:prinin:382 is not listed on IDEAS
- repec:pri:indrel:382 is not listed on IDEAS
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1017. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mark Fallak)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.