The external returns to education: UK evidence using repeated cross-sections
Augmenting a Mincerian earnings function with industry level data we estimate the external return to schooling for a repeated cross-section of individuals in the UK over the period 1994-2004. For men age 30-49 we find that a one year increase in the industry average level of schooling is associated with an increase in individual wages of 2.6 to 3.9%, around 2 to 3 fifths of the private return to schooling. We illustrate the sensitivity of external return estimates to industry ICT use and union density, and individuals' own level of schooling.
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