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Policies to Foster Human Capital

  • James Heckman

This paper was given presented at the Aaron Wildavsky Forum, Richard and Rhoda Goldman School of Public Policy, University of California at Berkeley. The research reported here was supported by the National Science Foundation, the Russell Sage Foundation and the American Bar Foundation. Outline: Rising Wage Inequality - A Global Problem Linked To Trade and Technology Show Magnitudes of Problem 1.66 Trillion Cost To Restore U.S. to Previous Levels Tuition Subsidy Policy How to Combat This? Transfer Unpopular Skill enhancement is popular Another avenue is to subsidize work by the unskilled Think more broadly about tax/transfer policy Take the Long View Main Points of My Lecture Tonight About Skill Formation and Sources of Skill Formation in A Modern Economy Costly To Produce Skill Need to Recognize That Skill is Not Undimensional Recognize Diversity of Skill Motivation, IQ, Skill all matter but these are not the same thing. Need to Recognize the Life Cycle of Skill Production: Learning Begets Learning and Early Learning More Productive Than Later Learning: Not just because payoff is less for the late investor but also Because of synergies and Complementarity. Beyond A Certain Age and Stage in Life Cycle H.C. Investment Not Productive. Recognize Important Role of Families and Informal Sources of Skill "Social Planners" and professional educators equate skill with educational; what is produced in their institutions and what is measured by their tests; but in a broader definition of skill families play a much greater role (values; motivation) OJT is productive. Firms are highly productive sources of skill of Human Capital 25-50% of Human Capital Produce on the Job The Role of the Formal Overstated and Informal Context and Sources of Skills Understated. A Substantial Antimarket - Anti Choice Bias of Many Educational Planners Against Market and Competition - Yet The Evidence Strong Favors Competition in Provision of Education German Apprenticeship System // Data from U.S. Parental Preferences Peculiar World of High School and the Advantage of School to Work Programs Many Traditional Arguments Supporting Educational Interventions Greatly Overstated Evidence Against Short Term Liquidity Constraints Evidence that H.C. Should be Taxed More (At Least Within U.S. System) - Elimination of Progressive Taxes and Shift To A Consumption Tax and Making Tuition Deductible. Raises Physical Capital Accumulation and Raises Productivity and Wages Formal Schooling and Job Training both Private and Public Quality Effects Credit Constraints Wage Subsidies: Do They Work? Tax Policy Early Interventions and Donohue Siegelman Estimates Long View

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Paper provided by Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago in its series Working Papers with number 0028.

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Date of creation: Feb 2000
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Handle: RePEc:har:wpaper:0028
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  1. Robert J. LaLonde, 1995. "The Promise of Public Sector-Sponsored Training Programs," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 149-168, Spring.
  2. John Cawley & James Heckman & Edward Vytlacil, 1998. "Understanding the Role of Cognitive Ability in Accounting for the Recent Rise in the Economic Return to Education," NBER Working Papers 6388, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  3. Lynch, Lisa M, 1992. "Private-Sector Training and the Earnings of Young Workers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(1), pages 299-312, March.
  4. Currie, J. & Thomas, D., 1995. "Does Head Start make a Difference?," Papers 95-10, RAND - Reprint Series.
  5. Eric A. Hanushek, . "The Evidence on Class Size," Wallis Working Papers WP10, University of Rochester - Wallis Institute of Political Economy.
  6. Neal, Derek, 1997. "The Effects of Catholic Secondary Schooling on Educational Achievement," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 98-123, January.
  7. Carneiro, Pedro & Heckman, James J., 2003. "Human Capital Policy," IZA Discussion Papers 821, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  8. James Heckman & Neil Hohmann & Jeffrey Smith & Michael Khoo, 2000. "Substitution And Dropout Bias In Social Experiments: A Study Of An Influential Social Experiment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 115(2), pages 651-694, May.
  9. Paul Decker & Walter Corson, 1995. "International trade and worker displacement: Evaluation of the Trade Adjustment Assistance Program," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 48(4), pages 758-774, July.
  10. David Card & Alan Krueger, 1996. "School Resources and Student Outcomes: An Overview of the Literature and New Evidence from North and South Carolina," Working Papers 745, Princeton University, Department of Economics, Industrial Relations Section..
  11. Browning, Martin & Hansen, Lars Peter & Heckman, James J., 1999. "Micro data and general equilibrium models," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 8, pages 543-633 Elsevier.
  12. Heckman, James J, 1976. "A Life-Cycle Model of Earnings, Learning, and Consumption," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 84(4), pages S11-44, August.
  13. James J. Heckman & Lance Lochner & Christopher Taber, 1998. "Explaining Rising Wage Inequality: Explorations with a Dynamic General Equilibrium Model of Labor Earnings with Heterogeneous Agents," NBER Working Papers 6384, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  14. Ann P. Bartel, 1991. "Productivity Gains From the Implementation of Employee Training Programs," NBER Working Papers 3893, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Heckman, James & Layne-Farrar, Anne & Todd, Petra, 1996. "Human Capital Pricing Equations with an Application to Estimating the Effect of Schooling Quality on Earnings," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 78(4), pages 562-610, November.
  16. Donohue, John J, III & Siegelman, Peter, 1998. "Allocating Resources among Prisons and Social Programs in the Battle against Crime," The Journal of Legal Studies, University of Chicago Press, vol. 27(1), pages 1-43, January.
  17. Couch, Kenneth A, 1992. "New Evidence on the Long-Term Effects of Employment Training Programs," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 10(4), pages 380-88, October.
  18. Arulampalam, W. & Robin A. Naylor & Jeremy P. Smith, 2002. "University of Warwick," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2002 9, Royal Economic Society.
  19. James J. Heckman & Rebecca L. Roselius & Jeffrey A. Smith, 1993. "U.S. Education and Training Policy: A Re-evaluation of the Underlying Assumptions Behind the "New Consensus A Re-evaluation of the Underlying Assumptions Behind the "New Consensus"," Working Papers 9304, Harris School of Public Policy Studies, University of Chicago.
  20. Duane E. Leigh, 1995. "Assisting Workers Displaced by Structural Change: An International Perspective," Books from Upjohn Press, W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research, number awd, December.
  21. John Cawley & James Heckman & Edward Vytlacil, 1999. "On Policies To Reward The Value Added By Educators," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 81(4), pages 720-727, November.
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