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Citations for "Investment Shocks and Business Cycles"

by Alejandro Justiniano & Giorgio E. Primiceri & Andrea Tambalotti

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  1. Marco Del Negro & Gauti Eggertsson & Andrea Ferrero & Nobuhiro Kiyotaki, 2011. "The great escape? A quantitative evaluation of the Fed’s liquidity facilities," Staff Reports 520, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  2. Robert Kollmann & Marco Ratto & Werner Roeger & Jan in’t Veld & Lukas Vogel, 2014. "What drives the German current account? And how does it affect other EU member states?," CAMA Working Papers 2014-35, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  3. Alejandro Justiniano & Giorgio Primiceri & Andrea Tambalotti, 2011. "Investment Shocks and the Relative Price of Investment," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 14(1), pages 101-121, January.
  4. Domenico Giannone & Michele Lenza & Giorgio E. Primiceri, 2012. "Prior Selection for Vector Autoregressions," NBER Working Papers 18467, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Francisco J. Buera & Benjamin Moll, 2012. "Aggregate Implications of a Credit Crunch," NBER Working Papers 17775, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. John Tsoukala & Hashmat Khan, . "Investment Shocks and the Comovement Problem," Discussion Papers 10/09, University of Nottingham, Centre for Finance, Credit and Macroeconomics (CFCM).
  7. Lorenzo Menna & Patrizio Tirelli, 2014. "The Equity Premium in a DSGE Model with Limited Asset Market Participation," Working Papers 275, University of Milano-Bicocca, Department of Economics, revised Jun 2014.
  8. Reza, Abeer, 2014. "Consumption response to investment shocks under financial frictions," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 123(1), pages 50-53.
  9. Berriel, Tiago & Sinigaglia, Daniel, 2008. "Optimal Fiscal and Monetary Policy under Sectorial Heterogeneity," MPRA Paper 10233, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 25 Jun 2008.
  10. Matthias Gubler & Matthias S. Hertweck, 2011. "Commodity Price Shocks and the Business Cycle: Structural Evidence for the U.S," Working Paper Series of the Department of Economics, University of Konstanz 2011-03, Department of Economics, University of Konstanz.
  11. Carlos Carvalho & Fernanda Nechio, 2008. "Aggregation and the PPP puzzle in a sticky-price model," Staff Reports 351, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  12. Dave, Chetan & Dressler, Scott J., 2010. "Technology shocks, capital utilization and sticky prices," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(10), pages 2179-2191, October.
  13. Zheng Liu, 2009. "Sources of the Great Moderation: Shocks, Frictions, or Monetary Policy?," 2009 Meeting Papers 379, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  14. Benjamin Born & Johannes Pfeifer, 2013. "Policy Risk and the Business Cycle," CESifo Working Paper Series 4336, CESifo Group Munich.
  15. P. Jacob & G. Peersman, 2008. "Dissecting the Dynamics of the US Trade Balance in an Estimated Equilibrium Model," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 08/544, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  16. Hashmat Khan & John Tsoukalas, 2009. "The Quantitative Importance of News Shocks in Estimated DSGE Models," Carleton Economic Papers 09-07, Carleton University, Department of Economics, revised 22 May 2012.
  17. Sala, Luca & Söderström, Ulf & Trigari, Antonella, 2010. "The Output Gap, the Labor Wedge, and the Dynamic Behavior of Hours," CEPR Discussion Papers 8005, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  18. Gunes Kamber & Christie Smith & Christoph Thoenissen, 2012. "Financial frictions and the role of investment specific technology shocks in the business cycle," CDMA Working Paper Series 201206, Centre for Dynamic Macroeconomic Analysis.
  19. Hess Chung & Jean-Philippe Laforte & David Reifschneider & John C. Williams, 2011. "Have we underestimated the likelihood and severity of zero lower bound events?," Working Paper Series 2011-01, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  20. repec:wyi:journl:002201 is not listed on IDEAS
  21. Fabio Canova & Tobias Menz, 2011. "Does Money Matter in Shaping Domestic Business Cycles? An International Investigation," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 43(4), pages 577-607, 06.
  22. Nadav Ben Zeev & Hashmat U. Khan, 2012. "Investment-Specific News Shocks and U.S. Business Cycles," Carleton Economic Papers 12-05, Carleton University, Department of Economics, revised 25 Feb 2013.
  23. Castelnuovo , Efrem & Nisticò, Salvatore, 2010. "Stock market conditions and monetary policy in an DSGE model for the US," Research Discussion Papers 11/2010, Bank of Finland.
  24. Marianna Riggi, 2012. "Capital destruction, jobless recoveries, and the discipline device role of unemployment," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 871, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  25. Fransesco Furlanetto & Martin Seneca, 2010. "Investment-specific technology shocks and consumption," Economics wp49, Department of Economics, Central bank of Iceland.
  26. Nirei, Makoto, 2013. "Interaction-based Foundation of Aggregate Investment Shocks," IIR Working Paper 13-04, Institute of Innovation Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  27. Justiniano, Alejandro & Primiceri, Giorgio E. & Tambalotti, Andrea, 2008. "Investment Shocks and Business Cycles," CEPR Discussion Papers 6739, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  28. Renzo Orsi & Davide Raggi & Francesco Turino, 2013. "Online Appendix to "Size, Trend, and Policy Implications of the Underground Economy"," Technical Appendices 12-217, Review of Economic Dynamics.
  29. Sandra Gomes & Caterina Mendicino, 2011. "Housing Market Dynamics: Any News?," Working Papers w201121, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
  30. Sandra Gomes & Nikolay Iskrev & Caterina Mendicino, 2013. "Monetary policy shocks: We got news!," Working Papers w201307, Banco de Portugal, Economics and Research Department.
  31. Alejandro Justiniano & Claudio Michelacci, 2011. "The Cyclical Behavior of Equilibrium Unemployment and Vacancies in the US and Europe," NBER Working Papers 17429, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  32. Sala, Luca & Söderström, Ulf & Trigari, Antonella, 2012. "Structural and Cyclical Forces in the Labor Market During the Great Recession: Cross-Country Evidence," Working Paper Series 264, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden).
  33. Carlos Carvalho & Fernanda Nechio, 2013. "Factor specificity and real rigidities," Working Paper Series 2013-31, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  34. Beaudry, Paul & Collard, Fabrice & Portier, Franck, 2011. "Gold rush fever in business cycles," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 84-97, March.
  35. Dmitriev, Alexandre & Roberts, Ivan, 2013. "The cost of adjustment: On comovement between the trade balance and the terms of trade," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 689-700.
  36. Fransesco Furlanetto & Martin Seneca, 2010. "New Perspectives on Depreciation Shocks as a Source of Business Cycle Fluctuations," Economics wp48, Department of Economics, Central bank of Iceland.
  37. Fuentes-Albero, Cristina & Kryshko, Maxym & Ríos-Rull, José-Víctor & Santaeulàlia-Llopis, Raül & Schorfheide, Frank, 2009. "Methods versus Substance: Measuring the Effects of Technology Shocks on Hours," CEPR Discussion Papers 7474, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  38. Yongsung Chang & Sun-Bin Kim & Frank Schorfheide, 2010. "Labor-Market Heterogeneity, Aggregation, and the Lucas Critique," NBER Working Papers 16401, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  39. Del Negro, Marco & Eusepi, Stefano, 2011. "Fitting observed inflation expectations," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 2105-2131.
  40. Görtz, Christoph & Tsoukalas, John, 2011. "News and financial intermediation in aggregate and sectoral fluctuations," MPRA Paper 38986, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Mar 2012.
  41. repec:pra:mprapa:38985 is not listed on IDEAS
  42. Christoph Görtz & John D. Tsoukalas, 2013. "News shocks and business cycles: bridging the gap from different methodologies," Working Papers 2013_25, Business School - Economics, University of Glasgow.
  43. Fabio Canova & Tobias Menz, 2010. "Does Money Matter in Shaping Domestic Business Cycles? An International Investigation (with appendices)," Working Papers 516, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
  44. Fève, Patrick & Sahuc, Jean-Guillaume, 2013. "On the Size of the Government Spending Multiplier in the Euro Area," IDEI Working Papers 776, Institut d'Économie Industrielle (IDEI), Toulouse, revised Nov 2013.
  45. Chen, Kaiji & Song, Zheng, 2009. "Financial Frictions on Capital Allocation: A Transmission Mechanism of TFP Fluctuations," MPRA Paper 15211, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  46. Raffo, Andrea, 2010. "Technology Shocks: Novel Implications for International Business Cycles," CEPR Discussion Papers 7980, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  47. Martins, Guilherme & Sinigaglia, Daniel, 2009. "Real Business Cycle Dynamics under Rational Inattention," MPRA Paper 14089, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  48. Schmitt-Grohé, Stephanie & Uribe, Martín, 2010. "Business Cycles With A Common Trend in Neutral and Investment-Specific Productivity," CEPR Discussion Papers 7878, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  49. Gertler, Mark & Karadi, Peter, 2011. "A model of unconventional monetary policy," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1), pages 17-34, January.
  50. Han Chen & Vasco Cúrdia & Andrea Ferrero, 2012. "The macroeconomic effects of large-scale asset purchase programs," Working Paper Series 2012-22, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  51. Robert Kollmann, 2013. "Global Banks, Financial Shocks, and International Business Cycles: Evidence from an Estimated Model," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 45(s2), pages 159-195, December.
  52. Juessen, Falko & Linnemann, Ludger, 2012. "Markups and fiscal transmission in a panel of OECD countries," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 674-686.
  53. Lester, Robert & Pries, Michael & Sims, Eric, 2014. "Volatility and welfare," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 17-36.
  54. Stefano Eusepi & Bruce Preston, 2009. "Labor supply heterogeneity and macroeconomic comovement," Staff Reports 399, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  55. Stephanie Schmitt-Grohe & Martin Uribe, 2008. "What's News in Business Cycles," NBER Working Papers 14215, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  56. Dey, Jaya, 2014. "Evaluating monetary policy under preferences with zero wealth effect: A Bayesian approach," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 209-234.
  57. Ríos-Rull, José-Víctor & Schorfheide, Frank & Fuentes-Albero, Cristina & Kryshko, Maxym & Santaeulàlia-Llopis, Raül, 2012. "Methods versus substance: Measuring the effects of technology shocks," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(8), pages 826-846.
  58. Stephanie Schmitt-Grohé, 2010. "Comment on "Letting Different Views about Business Cycles Compete"," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2009, Volume 24, pages 475-489 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  59. Christiano, Lawrence & Rostagno, Massimo & Motto, Roberto, 2010. "Financial factors in economic fluctuations," Working Paper Series 1192, European Central Bank.
  60. Leonid Kogan & Dimitris Papanikolaou & Noah Stoffman, 2013. "Technological Innovation: Winners and Losers," NBER Working Papers 18671, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  61. Christoph Görtz & John D. Tsoukalas, 2013. "Sector Specific News Shocks in Aggregate and Sectoral Fluctuations," CESifo Working Paper Series 4269, CESifo Group Munich.
  62. Shu-Chun S. Yang & Nora Traum, 2010. "Monetary and Fiscal Policy Interactions in the Post-War U.S," IMF Working Papers 10/243, International Monetary Fund.
  63. Andrea Tambalotti & Andrea Ferrero & Vasco Curdia, 2010. "Evaluating Interest Rate Rules in an Estimated DSGE Model," 2010 Meeting Papers 402, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  64. Charles T. Carlstrom & Last: T. Carlstrom & Timothy S. Fuerst & Last: S. Fuerst & Alberto Ortiz & Last: Ortiz & Matthias Paustian & Last: Paustian, 2013. "Estimating Contract Indexation in a Financial Accelerator Model," Documentos de Investigación - Research Papers 10, Centro de Estudios Monetarios Latinoamericanos, CEMLA.
  65. Giuli, Francesco & Tancioni, Massimiliano, 2012. "Real rigidities, productivity improvements and investment dynamics," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 100-118.
  66. Zheng Liu & Daniel F. Waggoner & Tao Zha, 2010. "Sources of Macroeconomic Fluctuations: A Regime-switching DSGE Approach," Emory Economics 1002, Department of Economics, Emory University (Atlanta).
  67. Offick, Sven & Winkler, Roland, 2013. "Endogenous Firm Entry in an Estimated Model of the U.S. Business Cycle," Annual Conference 2013 (Duesseldorf): Competition Policy and Regulation in a Global Economic Order 79845, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
  68. Sohei Kaihatsu & Takushi Kurozumi, 2014. "Sources of Business Fluctuations: Financial or Technology Shocks?," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 17(2), pages 224-242, April.
  69. Saijo, Hikaru, 2013. "Estimating DSGE models using seasonally adjusted and unadjusted data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 173(1), pages 22-35.
  70. Hürtgen, Patrick, 2014. "Consumer misperceptions, uncertain fundamentals, and the business cycle," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 279-292.
  71. Paul Beaudry & Franck Portier, 2013. "News Driven Business Cycles: Insights and Challenges," NBER Working Papers 19411, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  72. Christiano, Lawrence J. & Trabandt, Mathias & Walentin, Karl, 2007. "Introducing Financial Frictions and Unemployment into a Small Open Economy Model," Working Paper Series 214, Sveriges Riksbank (Central Bank of Sweden), revised 01 Jun 2011.
  73. Leonid Kogan & Dimitris Papanikolaou, 2012. "A Theory of Firm Characteristics and Stock Returns: The Role of Investment-Specific Shocks," NBER Working Papers 17975, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  74. Timothy Cogley & Christian Matthes & Argia M. Sbordone, 2011. "Optimal disinflation under learning," Staff Reports 524, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  75. Andrea Ajello, 2012. "Financial intermediation, investment dynamics and business cycle fluctuations," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2012-67, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  76. Christopher M. Gunn, 2013. "Animal Spirits as an Engine of Boom-Busts and Throttle of Productivity Growth," Carleton Economic Papers 13-04, Carleton University, Department of Economics.
  77. Hakon Tretvoll, 2013. "Investment-Specific Technology Shocks and Recursive Preferences," 2013 Meeting Papers 1207, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  78. Jung, Yong-Gook, 2013. "An inference about the length of the time-to-build period," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 42-54.
  79. Jerger, Jürgen & Röhe, Oke, 2011. "Testing for Parameter Stability in DSGE Models. The Cases of France, Germany and Spain," University of Regensburg Working Papers in Business, Economics and Management Information Systems 453, University of Regensburg, Department of Economics.
  80. Dmitry Plotnikov, 2013. "Hysteresis in Unemployment and Jobless Recoveries," 2013 Meeting Papers 208, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  81. Martinez-Garcia, Enrique & Sondergaard, Jens, 2009. "The real exchange rate in sticky-price models: does investment matter?," Bank of England working papers 368, Bank of England.
  82. Görtz, Christoph & Tsoukalas, John, 2011. "News and Financial Intermediation in Aggregate Fluctuations," MPRA Paper 34113, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Oct 2011.
  83. Gregory Erin Givens, 2008. "Unemployment Insurance in a Sticky-Price Model with Worker Moral Hazard," Working Papers 200807, Middle Tennessee State University, Department of Economics and Finance.
  84. Paul Beaudry & Franck Portier, 2013. "Understanding Noninflationary Demand-Driven Business Cycles," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2013, Volume 28, pages 69-130 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  85. Benjamin Born & Alexandra Peter & Johannes Pfeifer, 2011. "Fiscal News and Macroeconomic Volatility," Bonn Econ Discussion Papers bgse08_2011, University of Bonn, Germany.
  86. Ching-Yang Lin & Hiroaki Miyamoto, 2014. "An Estimated Search and Matching Model of the Japanese Labor Market," Working Papers EMS_2014_02, Research Institute, International University of Japan.
  87. Gortz, Christoph & John, Tsoukalas, 2011. "Learning, capital-embodied technology and aggregate fluctuations," MPRA Paper 35438, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Nov 2011.
  88. Kim, Kwang Hwan, 2010. "Is the real price of equipment a good measure for investment-specific technological change?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 108(3), pages 311-313, September.
  89. Hirose, Yasuo & Kurozumi, Takushi, 2011. "Do investment-specific technological changes matter for business fluctuations? Evidence from Japan," MPRA Paper 32944, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  90. Francesco Furlanetto & Gisle J. Natvik & Martin Seneca, 2011. "Investment shocks and macroeconomic co-movement," Working Paper 2011/14, Norges Bank.
  91. Hyunseung Oh & Nicolas Crouzet, 2013. "Can news shocks account for the business-cycle dynamics of inventories?," 2013 Meeting Papers 504, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  92. Marco Centoni & Gianluca Cubadda, 2011. "Modelling Comovements of Economic Time Series: A Selective Survey," CEIS Research Paper 215, Tor Vergata University, CEIS, revised 26 Oct 2011.
  93. Selim Elekdag & Harun Alp, 2011. "The Role of Monetary Policy in Turkey During the Global Financial Crisis," IMF Working Papers 11/150, International Monetary Fund.
  94. Pau Rabanal & Juan Rubio-Ramirez & Diego Vilan & Federico Mandelman, 2010. "Investment-Specific Technology Shocks and International Business Cycles: An Empirical Assessment," 2010 Meeting Papers 1175, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  95. Zheng, Tingguo & Guo, Huiming, 2013. "Estimating a small open economy DSGE model with indeterminacy: Evidence from China," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 642-652.
  96. Leonid Kogan & Dimitris Papanikolaou, 2012. "Growth Opportunities, Technology Shocks, and Asset Prices," NBER Working Papers 17795, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  97. Furlanetto, Francesco & Seneca, Martin, 2014. "Investment shocks and consumption," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 111-126.
  98. Robert Kollmann, 2012. "Global Banks, Financial Shocks and International Business Cycles: Evidence from Estimated Models," 2012 Meeting Papers 840, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  99. Fiori, Giuseppe, 2012. "Lumpiness, capital adjustment costs and investment dynamics," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(4), pages 381-392.
  100. Robert B. Barsky & Susanto Basu & Keyoung Lee, 2014. "Whither News Shocks?," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2014, Volume 29 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  101. Pinter, Gabor & Theodoridis, Konstantinos & Yates, Tony, 2013. "Risk news shocks and the business cycle," Bank of England working papers 483, Bank of England.
  102. Hilberg, Björn & Hollmayr, Josef, 2013. "Asset prices, collateral, and unconventional monetary policy in a DSGE model," Discussion Papers 36/2013, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
  103. Marco Del Negro & Frank Schorfheide, 2012. "DSGE model-based forecasting," Staff Reports 554, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
  104. Luca Sala, 2013. "DSGE models in the frequency domain," Working Papers 504, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
  105. Cogley, Timothy & Matthes, Christian & Sbordone, Argia M., 2014. "Optimized Taylor Rules for Disinflation When Agents are Learning," Working Paper 14-7, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
  106. R. Orsi & D. Raggi & F. Turino, 2012. "Size, Trend, and Policy Implications of the Underground Economy," Working Papers wp818, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
  107. Araújo, Eurilton, 2012. "Investment-specific shocks and real business cycles in emerging economies: Evidence from Brazil," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 671-678.
  108. Martín Uribe, 2013. "Comment on "Understanding Noninflationary Demand Driven Business Cycles"," NBER Chapters, in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2013, Volume 28, pages 144-153 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  109. Alejandro Justiniano & Claudio Michelacci, 2011. "The Cyclical Behavior of Equilibrium Unemployment and Vacancies in the United States and Europe," NBER Chapters, in: NBER International Seminar on Macroeconomics 2011, pages 169-235 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  110. Tyler Muir & Andrea Eisfeldt, 2012. "The Joint Dynamics of Internal and External Finance," 2012 Meeting Papers 842, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  111. Yang, Fan, 2013. "Investment shocks and the commodity basis spread," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(1), pages 164-184.
  112. Stefan Avdjiev, 2011. "News driven business cycles and data on asset prices in estimated DSGE models," BIS Working Papers 358, Bank for International Settlements.
  113. Ruy Lama & Pau Rabanal, 2012. "Deciding to Enter a Monetary Union," IMF Working Papers 12/240, International Monetary Fund.
  114. Chen, Han, 2014. "Assessing the Effects of the Zero-Interest-Rate Policy through the Lens of a Regime-Switching DSGE Model," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2014-38, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  115. Curdia, Vasco & Ferrero, Andrea & Ng, Ging Cee & Tambalotti, Andrea, 2014. "Has U.S. monetary policy tracked the efficient interest rate?," Working Paper Series 2014-12, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco.
  116. Mennuni, Alessandro, 2014. "The Role of Curvature in the Transformation Frontier between Consumption and Investment," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 1407, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
  117. Johannsen, Benjamin K., 2014. "When are the Effects of Fiscal Policy Uncertainty Large?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2014-40, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).