IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wti/papers/1101.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Testing for Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions using a Bayesian Robust Structural Model

Author

Listed:
  • Fernández-Amador, Octavio
  • Oberdabernig, Doris
  • Tomberger, Patrick

Abstract

We address international convergence in Carbon Dioxide emissions per capita and per value added derived from emission inventories based on production and consumption patterns. We propose a Bayesian structural model that accounts for heteroscedasticity, endogeneity between emissions and economic growth, and tests for the existence of group-specific convergence via shrinkage priors. We find evidence for country- specific conditional convergence in all emission inventories, implying a half-life of 2.8 - 3.1 years for emissions per capita and 3.2 - 5 years for emission intensities. When testing for global convergence without allowing for individual-specific convergence paths, the half-life of CO2 intensities increases to 20 - 24 years, whereas emissions per capita do not show convergence towards global steady states. Our results highlight the current incompatibility between emission targets and economic growth and the need for greener technologies. Moreover, there is no evidence for specific convergence dynamics in the European Union, the OECD, or the countries that rati ed the Kyoto Protocol. The institutional frameworks implemented in industrialized countries did not induce faster convergence among developed economies.

Suggested Citation

  • Fernández-Amador, Octavio & Oberdabernig, Doris & Tomberger, Patrick, 2017. "Testing for Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions using a Bayesian Robust Structural Model," Papers 1101, World Trade Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:wti:papers:1101
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.wti.org/media/filer_public/c7/5d/c75d6544-224a-44be-874e-e938f5b4b80f/wti_wp_01_2017_testing_for_convergence_in_carbon_dioxide_emissions.pdf
    File Function: First version
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Azomahou, Theophile & Laisney, Francois & Nguyen Van, Phu, 2006. "Economic development and CO2 emissions: A nonparametric panel approach," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(6-7), pages 1347-1363, August.
    2. Robert M. Solow, 1956. "A Contribution to the Theory of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 70(1), pages 65-94.
    3. Tanizaki, Hisashi, 2000. "Bias correction of OLSE in the regression model with lagged dependent variables," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 34(4), pages 495-511, October.
    4. Bernard, Andrew B. & Durlauf, Steven N., 1996. "Interpreting tests of the convergence hypothesis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1-2), pages 161-173.
    5. Ravallion, Martin, 2003. "Inequality convergence," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(3), pages 351-356, September.
    6. William Brock & M. Taylor, 2010. "The Green Solow model," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 127-153, June.
    7. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Selden, Thomas M., 1995. "Stoking the fires? CO2 emissions and economic growth," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(1), pages 85-101, May.
    8. Fernández-Amador, Octavio & Francois, Joseph F. & Oberdabernig, Doris A. & Tomberger, Patrick, 2017. "Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Economic Growth: An Assessment Based on Production and Consumption Emission Inventories," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 135(C), pages 269-279.
    9. Kaika, Dimitra & Zervas, Efthimios, 2013. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) theory—Part A: Concept, causes and the CO2 emissions case," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1392-1402.
    10. Robert J. Barro, 1991. "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 407-443.
    11. Rahel Aichele & Gabriel Felbermayr & Gabriel J. Felbermayr, 2011. "Kyoto and Carbon Leakage: An Empirical Analysis of the Carbon Content of Bilateral Trade," CESifo Working Paper Series 3661, CESifo.
    12. Susmita Dasgupta & Benoit Laplante & Hua Wang & David Wheeler, 2002. "Confronting the Environmental Kuznets Curve," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 16(1), pages 147-168, Winter.
    13. Ezcurra, Roberto, 2007. "Is there cross-country convergence in carbon dioxide emissions?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 1363-1372, February.
    14. Fernández-Amador, Octavio & Francois, Joseph F. & Tomberger, Patrick, 2016. "Carbon dioxide emissions and international trade at the turn of the millennium," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 125(C), pages 14-26.
    15. Marco Barassi & Matthew Cole & Robert Elliott, 2011. "The Stochastic Convergence of CO 2 Emissions: A Long Memory Approach," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 49(3), pages 367-385, July.
    16. Wang, Yiming & Zhang, Pei & Huang, Dake & Cai, Changda, 2014. "Convergence behavior of carbon dioxide emissions in China," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 75-80.
    17. Mark Strazicich & John List, 2003. "Are CO 2 Emission Levels Converging Among Industrial Countries?," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 24(3), pages 263-271, March.
    18. Kiviet, Jan F., 1995. "On bias, inconsistency, and efficiency of various estimators in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 53-78, July.
    19. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier X., 1996. "Regional cohesion: Evidence and theories of regional growth and convergence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1325-1352, June.
    20. Hao, Yu & Liao, Hua & Wei, Yi-Ming, 2015. "Is China’s carbon reduction target allocation reasonable? An analysis based on carbon intensity convergence," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 142(C), pages 229-239.
    21. Richard Schmalensee & Thomas M. Stoker & Ruth A. Judson, 1998. "World Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1950-2050," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(1), pages 15-27, February.
    22. Joakim Westerlund & Syed Basher, 2008. "Testing for Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions Using a Century of Panel Data," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 40(1), pages 109-120, May.
    23. Pettersson, Fredrik & Maddison, David & Acar, Sevil & Söderholm, Patrik, 2014. "Convergence of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: A Review of the Literature," International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, now publishers, vol. 7(2), pages 141-178, July.
    24. Ordás Criado, C. & Valente, S. & Stengos, T., 2011. "Growth and pollution convergence: Theory and evidence," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 199-214, September.
    25. Matthew J. Salois & Kelvin G. Balcombe, 2015. "A Generalized Bayesian Instrumental Variable Approach under Student t-distributed Errors with Application," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 83(5), pages 499-522, September.
    26. Kleibergen, Frank & Zivot, Eric, 2003. "Bayesian and classical approaches to instrumental variable regression," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 114(1), pages 29-72, May.
    27. Evans, Paul & Karras, Georgios, 1996. "Convergence revisited," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 249-265, April.
    28. Geweke, J, 1993. "Bayesian Treatment of the Independent Student- t Linear Model," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(S), pages 19-40, Suppl. De.
    29. Ordás Criado, C. & Grether, J.-M., 2011. "Convergence in per capita CO2 emissions: A robust distributional approach," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 637-665, September.
    30. Everaert, Gerdie & Pozzi, Lorenzo, 2007. "Bootstrap-based bias correction for dynamic panels," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 1160-1184, April.
    31. Mariam Camarero & Juana Castillo & Andrés Picazo-Tadeo & Cecilio Tamarit, 2013. "Eco-Efficiency and Convergence in OECD Countries," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 55(1), pages 87-106, May.
    32. Baumol, William J, 1986. "Productivity Growth, Convergence, and Welfare: What the Long-run Data Show," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(5), pages 1072-1085, December.
    33. Joseph Aldy, 2006. "Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Convergence or Divergence?," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 33(4), pages 533-555, April.
    34. Quah, Danny T., 1996. "Empirics for economic growth and convergence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1353-1375, June.
    35. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
    36. Rahel Aichele & Gabriel Felbermayr, 2015. "Kyoto and Carbon Leakage: An Empirical Analysis of the Carbon Content of Bilateral Trade," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 97(1), pages 104-115, March.
    37. Peter C. B. Phillips & Donggyu Sul, 2007. "Transition Modeling and Econometric Convergence Tests," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 75(6), pages 1771-1855, November.
    38. Carlino, Gerald A. & Mills, Leonard O., 1993. "Are U.S. regional incomes converging? : A time series analysis," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 335-346, November.
    39. David I. Stern, 2017. "The environmental Kuznets curve after 25 years," Journal of Bioeconomics, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 7-28, April.
    40. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chang, Chun-Ping, 2008. "New evidence on the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions from panel seemingly unrelated regressions augmented Dickey–Fuller tests," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1468-1475.
    41. Jobert, Thomas & Karanfil, Fatih & Tykhonenko, Anna, 2010. "Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in the EU: Legend or reality?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1364-1373, November.
    42. Ekaterini Panopoulou & Theologos Pantelidis, 2009. "Club Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 44(1), pages 47-70, September.
    43. Phillips, Peter C.B. & Sul, Donggyu, 2007. "Some empirics on economic growth under heterogeneous technology," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 455-469, September.
    44. Stern, David I., 2004. "The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1419-1439, August.
    45. Peng Ding, 2016. "On the Conditional Distribution of the Multivariate Distribution," The American Statistician, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 70(3), pages 293-295, July.
    46. Zhao, Xueting & Wesley Burnett, J. & Lacombe, Donald J., 2015. "Province-level convergence of China’s carbon dioxide emissions," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 150(C), pages 286-295.
    47. Quah, Danny, 1993. "Empirical cross-section dynamics in economic growth," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 37(2-3), pages 426-434, April.
    48. Hsiao,Cheng & Pesaran,M. Hashem & Lahiri,Kajal & Lee,Lung Fei (ed.), 1999. "Analysis of Panels and Limited Dependent Variable Models," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521631693.
    49. Bruno, Giovanni S.F., 2005. "Approximating the bias of the LSDV estimator for dynamic unbalanced panel data models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 87(3), pages 361-366, June.
    50. Anjum, Zeba & Burke, Paul J. & Gerlagh, Reyer & Stern, David I., "undated". "Modeling the Emissions-Income Relationship Using Long-Run Growth Rates," Working Papers 249422, Australian National University, Centre for Climate Economics & Policy.
    51. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chang, Chun-Ping, 2009. "Stochastic convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions and multiple structural breaks in OECD countries," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 1375-1381, November.
    52. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
    53. Joseph E. Aldy, 2007. "Divergence in State-Level Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 83(3), pages 353-369.
    54. Myriam Nourry, 2009. "Re-Examining the Empirical Evidence for Stochastic Convergence of Two Air Pollutants with a Pair-Wise Approach," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 44(4), pages 555-570, December.
    55. Nilgun Yavuz & Veli Yilanci, 2013. "Convergence in Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions Among G7 Countries: A TAR Panel Unit Root Approach," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 54(2), pages 283-291, February.
    56. Hedibert F. Lopes & Nicholas G. Polson, 2014. "Bayesian Instrumental Variables: Priors and Likelihoods," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(1-4), pages 100-121, June.
    57. Friedman, Milton, 1992. "Do Old Fallacies Ever Die?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 30(4), pages 2129-2132, December.
    58. Marco Barassi & Matthew Cole & Robert Elliott, 2008. "Stochastic Divergence or Convergence of Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Re-examining the Evidence," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 40(1), pages 121-137, May.
    59. Babiker, Mustafa H., 2005. "Climate change policy, market structure, and carbon leakage," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(2), pages 421-445, March.
    60. Farzin, Y. Hossein & Bond, Craig A., 2006. "Democracy and environmental quality," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 81(1), pages 213-235, October.
    61. Herrerias, M.J., 2013. "The environmental convergence hypothesis: Carbon dioxide emissions according to the source of energy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 1140-1150.
    62. Lancaster, Tony, 2000. "The incidental parameter problem since 1948," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 391-413, April.
    63. Burnett, J. Wesley, 2016. "Club convergence and clustering of U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 62-84.
    64. Wu, Jianxin & Wu, Yanrui & Guo, Xiumei & Cheong, Tsun Se, 2016. "Convergence of carbon dioxide emissions in Chinese cities: A continuous dynamic distribution approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 207-219.
    65. Nektarios Aslanidis & Susana Iranzo, 2009. "Environment and development: is there a Kuznets curve for CO2 emissions?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 41(6), pages 803-810.
    66. Nickell, Stephen J, 1981. "Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1417-1426, November.
    67. Chien-Chiang Lee & Chun-Ping Chang & Pei-Fen Chen, 2008. "Do CO2 emission levels converge among 21 OECD countries? New evidence from unit root structural break tests," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(7), pages 551-556.
    68. Ignace De Vos & Gerdie Everaert & Ilse Ruyssen, 2015. "Bootstrap-based bias correction and inference for dynamic panels with fixed effects," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 15(4), pages 986-1018, December.
    69. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. LAWSON, Laté A. & MARTINO, Roberto & NGUYEN-VAN, Phu, 2020. "Environmental convergence and environmental Kuznets curve: A unified empirical framework," Ecological Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 437(C).
    2. Zhang, Hongwu & Shi, Xunpeng & Cheong, Tsun Se & Wang, Keying, 2020. "Convergence of carbon emissions at the household level in China: A distribution dynamics approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Ahmed, Mumtaz & Khan, Atif Maqbool & Bibi, Salma & Zakaria, Muhammad, 2017. "Convergence of per capita CO2 emissions across the globe: Insights via wavelet analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 86-97.
    2. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2017. "Per capita carbon dioxide emissions across U.S. states by sector and fossil fuel source: Evidence from club convergence tests," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 365-372.
    3. Jian-Xin Wu & Ling-Yun He, 2017. "The Distribution Dynamics of Carbon Dioxide Emissions Intensity across Chinese Provinces: A Weighted Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(1), pages 1-19, January.
    4. Tiwari, Aviral & Nasir, Muhammad Ali & shahbaz, Muhammad & Raheem, Ibrahim, 2020. "Convergence and club convergence of CO2 emissions at state levels: A nonlinear analysis of the USA," MPRA Paper 105355, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. LAWSON, Laté A. & MARTINO, Roberto & NGUYEN-VAN, Phu, 2020. "Environmental convergence and environmental Kuznets curve: A unified empirical framework," Ecological Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 437(C).
    6. David I. Stern, 2017. "The environmental Kuznets curve after 25 years," Journal of Bioeconomics, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 7-28, April.
    7. Liu, Chang & Hong, Tao & Li, Huaifeng & Wang, Lili, 2018. "From club convergence of per capita industrial pollutant emissions to industrial transfer effects: An empirical study across 285 cities in China," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 121(C), pages 300-313.
    8. Jianhuan Huang & Yantuan Yu & Chunbo Ma, 2018. "Energy Efficiency Convergence in China: Catch-Up, Lock-In and Regulatory Uniformity," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 70(1), pages 107-130, May.
    9. Wu, Jianxin & Wu, Yanrui & Guo, Xiumei & Cheong, Tsun Se, 2016. "Convergence of carbon dioxide emissions in Chinese cities: A continuous dynamic distribution approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 207-219.
    10. Rios, Vicente & Gianmoena, Lisa, 2018. "Convergence in CO2 emissions: A spatial economic analysis with cross-country interactions," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 222-238.
    11. Cai, Yifei & Chang, Tsangyao & Inglesi-Lotz, Roula, 2018. "Asymmetric persistence in convergence for carbon dioxide emissions based on quantile unit root test with Fourier function," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 161(C), pages 470-481.
    12. Burnett, J. Wesley, 2016. "Club convergence and clustering of U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 62-84.
    13. Brännlund Runar & Karimu Amin & Söderholm Patrik, 2017. "Convergence in carbon dioxide emissions and the role of growth and institutions: a parametric and non-parametric analysis," Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, Springer;Society for Environmental Economics and Policy Studies - SEEPS, vol. 19(2), pages 359-390, April.
    14. Ivanovski, Kris & Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa, 2020. "Convergence and determinants of greenhouse gas emissions in Australia: A regional analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(C).
    15. Wu, Jian-Xin & He, Ling-Yun & Zhang, ZhongXiang, 2019. "Does China Fall into Poverty-Environment Traps? Evidence from Long-term Income Dynamics and Urban Air Pollution," ETA: Economic Theory and Applications 285027, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).
    16. Yan, Zheming & Du, Keru & Yang, Zhiming & Deng, Min, 2017. "Convergence or divergence? Understanding the global development trend of low-carbon technologies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 109(C), pages 499-509.
    17. Acar, Sevil & Yeldan, A. Erinç, 2018. "Investigating patterns of carbon convergence in an uneven economy: The case of Turkey," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 96-106.
    18. Brännlund, Runar & Lundgren, Tommy & Söderholm, Patrik, 2015. "Convergence of carbon dioxide performance across Swedish industrial sectors: An environmental index approach," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 227-235.
    19. Wang, Juan & Zhang, Kezhong, 2014. "Convergence of carbon dioxide emissions in different sectors in China," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 605-611.
    20. Firat Emir & Mehmet Balcilar & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2018. "Inequality in Carbon Intensity in EU-28: Analysis Based on Club Convergence," Working Papers 15-38, Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Economics.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F18 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade and Environment
    • F64 - International Economics - - Economic Impacts of Globalization - - - Environment
    • O44 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Environment and Growth
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wti:papers:1101. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Morven McLean). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/wtibech.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.