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Sigma Convergence Versus Beta Convergence: Evidence from U.S. County-Level Data

Author

Listed:
  • Andrew T. Young

    (Emory University)

  • Matthew J. Higgins

    (Emory University)

  • Daniel Levy

    () (Bar-Ilan University and Emory University)

Abstract

This note outlines (i) why σ-convergence may not accompany β-convergence; (ii) cites evidence of β-convergence in the U.S.; (iii) demonstrates that σ-convergence does not hold across the U.S., or within most U.S. states; and (iv) demonstrates the robustness of this finding to increases in mean income. The distributions of shocks appear important towards accounting for income disparity.

Suggested Citation

  • Andrew T. Young & Matthew J. Higgins & Daniel Levy, 2003. "Sigma Convergence Versus Beta Convergence: Evidence from U.S. County-Level Data," Working Papers 2003-06, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:biu:wpaper:2003-06
    as

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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Matthew Higgins & Daniel Levy & Andrew Young, 2004. "Heterogeneity in Convergence Rates and Income Determination across U.S. States: Evidence from County-level Data," Emory Economics 0401, Department of Economics, Emory University (Atlanta).
    2. Young, Andrew T. & Higgins, Matthew J. & Levy, Daniel, 2013. "Heterogeneous convergence," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 120(2), pages 238-241.
    3. Quah, Danny, 1993. " Galton's Fallacy and Tests of the Convergence Hypothesis," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(4), pages 427-443, December.
    4. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier X., 1996. "Regional cohesion: Evidence and theories of regional growth and convergence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1325-1352, June.
    5. Quah, Danny, 1997. "Empirics for Growth and Distribution: Stratification, Polarization, and Convergence Clubs," CEPR Discussion Papers 1586, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Matthew Higgins & Daniel Levy & Andrew T. Young, 2003. "Growth and Convergence across the US: Evidence from County-Level Data," Working Papers 2003-03, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
    7. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
    8. Efthymios Tsionas, 2000. "Regional Growth and Convergence: Evidence from the United States," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(3), pages 231-238.
    9. Furceri, Davide, 2005. "[beta] and [sigma]-convergence: A mathematical relation of causality," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 89(2), pages 212-215, November.
    10. Nazrul Islam, 1995. "Growth Empirics: A Panel Data Approach," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(4), pages 1127-1170.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    σ-convergence; β-convergence; Solow growth model; speed of convergence;

    JEL classification:

    • O40 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - General
    • O11 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes

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