IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/emu/wpaper/15-38.pdf.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Inequality in Carbon Intensity in EU-28: Analysis Based on Club Convergence

Author

Listed:
  • Firat Emir

    (Department of Economics, Eastern Mediterranean University)

  • Mehmet Balcilar

    () (Department of Economics, Eastern Mediterranean University)

  • Muhammad Shahbaz

    (Montpelier Business School, Montpelier, France)

Abstract

This study examines the convergence properties of CO2 intensity in EU-28 countries, using panel data for the period 1990 to 2016. We use Phillips and Sul’s (2007) approach to test for CO2 intensity convergence and identify convergence clubs. In addition to the EU-28 members, we analyze the EU-15, and the new EU members (EU-new) that joined after 2004, as distinct groups for the periods 1990–2016, 1990–2004, and 2005–2016. Our results show no convergence to a single group among the EU countries during the full and two subsample periods. However, the convergence takes place within five to seven clubs for the EU-28 and within three to five clubs for the EU-15 and EU-new. There is no evidence of all members converging to a single club in either group or the three sub-periods examined. This study highlights the need for adopting new strategies considering club properties and for sustainable growth, which meets the EU-28 environmental regulation standards.

Suggested Citation

  • Firat Emir & Mehmet Balcilar & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2018. "Inequality in Carbon Intensity in EU-28: Analysis Based on Club Convergence," Working Papers 15-38, Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:emu:wpaper:15-38.pdf
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://repec.economics.emu.edu.tr/RePEc/emu/wpaper/15-38.pdf
    File Function: First version, 2018
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Camarero, Mariam & Picazo-Tadeo, Andrés J. & Tamarit, Cecilio, 2013. "Are the determinants of CO2 emissions converging among OECD countries?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 118(1), pages 159-162.
    2. Chandran Govindaraju, V.G.R. & Tang, Chor Foon, 2013. "The dynamic links between CO2 emissions, economic growth and coal consumption in China and India," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 310-318.
    3. Jobert, Thomas & Karanfil, Fatih & Tykhonenko, Anna, 2010. "Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions in the EU: Legend or reality?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 1364-1373, November.
    4. Romero-Ávila, Diego, 2008. "Convergence in carbon dioxide emissions among industrialised countries revisited," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 2265-2282, September.
    5. Li, Xuehui & Lin, Boqiang, 2013. "Global convergence in per capita CO2 emissions," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 357-363.
    6. repec:eee:enepol:v:121:y:2018:i:c:p:300-313 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Joseph E. Aldy, 2007. "Divergence in State-Level Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 83(3), pages 353-369.
    8. Ezcurra, Roberto, 2007. "Is there cross-country convergence in carbon dioxide emissions?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 1363-1372, February.
    9. Ahdi Noomen Ajmi & Ghassen El Montasser & Duc Khuong Nguyen, 2014. "Carbon emissions - income relationships with structural breaks: the case of the Middle East and North African countries," Working Papers 2014-296, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
    10. Nilgun Yavuz & Veli Yilanci, 2013. "Convergence in Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions Among G7 Countries: A TAR Panel Unit Root Approach," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 54(2), pages 283-291, February.
    11. Quah, Danny, 1997. "Empirics for Growth and Distribution: Stratification, Polarization, and Convergence Clubs," CEPR Discussion Papers 1586, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Alison Stegman, 2005. "Convergence In Carbon Emissions Per Capita," CAMA Working Papers 2005-08, Centre for Applied Macroeconomic Analysis, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
    13. Wang, Yiming & Zhang, Pei & Huang, Dake & Cai, Changda, 2014. "Convergence behavior of carbon dioxide emissions in China," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 75-80.
    14. Marco Barassi & Matthew Cole & Robert Elliott, 2008. "Stochastic Divergence or Convergence of Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Re-examining the Evidence," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 40(1), pages 121-137, May.
    15. Christidou, Maria & Panagiotidis, Theodore & Sharma, Abhijit, 2013. "On the stationarity of per capita carbon dioxide emissions over a century," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 918-925.
    16. Peter C. B. Phillips & Donggyu Sul, 2009. "Economic transition and growth," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 24(7), pages 1153-1185.
    17. Joseph Aldy, 2006. "Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Convergence or Divergence?," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 33(4), pages 533-555, April.
    18. Herrerias, M.J., 2013. "The environmental convergence hypothesis: Carbon dioxide emissions according to the source of energy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 1140-1150.
    19. Ozcan, Burcu, 2013. "The nexus between carbon emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in Middle East countries: A panel data analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1138-1147.
    20. Burnett, J. Wesley, 2016. "Club convergence and clustering of U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 62-84.
    21. Joakim Westerlund & Syed Basher, 2008. "Testing for Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions Using a Century of Panel Data," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 40(1), pages 109-120, May.
    22. Ekaterini Panopoulou & Theologos Pantelidis, 2009. "Club Convergence in Carbon Dioxide Emissions," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 44(1), pages 47-70, September.
    23. Lindmark, Magnus & Acar, Sevil, 2015. "Periods of converging carbon dioxide emissions from oil combustion 1973-2004," CERE Working Papers 2015:1, CERE - the Center for Environmental and Resource Economics.
    24. Ordás Criado, C. & Grether, J.-M., 2011. "Convergence in per capita CO2 emissions: A robust distributional approach," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 637-665, September.
    25. Quah, Danny, 1993. " Galton's Fallacy and Tests of the Convergence Hypothesis," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(4), pages 427-443, December.
    26. Jayanthakumaran, Kankesu & Verma, Reetu & Liu, Ying, 2012. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption, trade and income: A comparative analysis of China and India," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 450-460.
    27. Ali Acaravci & Sinan Erdogan, 2016. "The Convergence Behavior of CO2 Emissions in Seven Regions under Multiple Structural Breaks," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 6(3), pages 575-580.
    28. Quah, Danny T, 1997. "Empirics for Growth and Distribution: Stratification, Polarization, and Convergence Clubs," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 2(1), pages 27-59, March.
    29. Quah, Danny T, 1996. "Convergence Empirics across Economies with (Some) Capital Mobility," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 95-124, March.
    30. repec:eee:eneeco:v:63:y:2017:i:c:p:365-372 is not listed on IDEAS
    31. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chang, Chun-Ping, 2008. "New evidence on the convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions from panel seemingly unrelated regressions augmented Dickey–Fuller tests," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 33(9), pages 1468-1475.
    32. Begum, Rawshan Ara & Sohag, Kazi & Abdullah, Sharifah Mastura Syed & Jaafar, Mokhtar, 2015. "CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic and population growth in Malaysia," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 594-601.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Carbon Intensity; Club Convergence; Convergence Test; European Union;

    JEL classification:

    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products
    • O47 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Growth and Aggregate Productivity - - - Empirical Studies of Economic Growth; Aggregate Productivity; Cross-Country Output Convergence
    • O5 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economywide Country Studies
    • Q52 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Pollution Control Adoption and Costs; Distributional Effects; Employment Effects
    • C22 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:emu:wpaper:15-38.pdf. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mehmet Balcilar). General contact details of provider: http://edirc.repec.org/data/deemuty.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.