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On the stationarity of per capita carbon dioxide emissions over a century

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Abstract

This paper examines the stationarity of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions per capita for a set of 36 countries covering the period 1870-2006. We employ recently developed unit root and stationarity tests that allow for the mean reverting process to be nonlinear and take into account cross sectional dependence. By grouping countries according to their geographical proximity the importance of cross sectional dependence in panel unit root and stationarity tests is revealed. Using a recently developed nonlinear panel unit root test, we nd strong evidence that the per capita carbon dioxide emissions over the last one hundred and fty years are stationary. Our nonlinear speci cation captures the dynamics of the emissions time series data more e ectively and we obtain evidence supporting stationarity for all country groups under study.

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  • Maria Christisou & Theodore Panagiotidis & Abhijit Sharma, 2013. "On the stationarity of per capita carbon dioxide emissions over a century," Discussion Paper Series 2013_02, Department of Economics, University of Macedonia, revised Dec 2013.
  • Handle: RePEc:mcd:mcddps:2013_02
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    7. Luis A. Gil-Alana & Juncal Cunado & Rangan Gupta, 2017. "Persistence, Mean-Reversion and Non-linearities in $$\hbox {CO2}$$ CO2 Emissions: Evidence from the BRICS and G7 Countries," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 67(4), pages 869-883, August.
    8. Ahmed, Mumtaz & Khan, Atif Maqbool & Bibi, Salma & Zakaria, Muhammad, 2017. "Convergence of per capita CO2 emissions across the globe: Insights via wavelet analysis," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 86-97.
    9. Harvey David I. & Leybourne Stephen J. & Whitehouse Emily J., 2018. "Testing for a unit root against ESTAR stationarity," Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics & Econometrics, De Gruyter, vol. 22(1), pages 1-29, February.
    10. Balsalobre-Lorente, Daniel & Driha, Oana M. & Bekun, Festus & Sinha, Avik & Fatai Adedoyin, Festus, 2020. "Consequences of COVID-19 on the social isolation of the Chinese economy: accounting for the role of reduction in carbon emissions," MPRA Paper 102894, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2020.
    11. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Khraief, Naceur & Hammoudeh, Shawkat, 2019. "How Do Carbon Emissions Respond to Economic Shocks? Evidence from Low-, Middle- and High-Income Countries," MPRA Paper 93976, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 15 May 2019.
    12. Apergis, Nicholas & Payne, James E., 2017. "Per capita carbon dioxide emissions across U.S. states by sector and fossil fuel source: Evidence from club convergence tests," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 365-372.
    13. Firat Emir & Mehmet Balcilar & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2018. "Inequality in Carbon Intensity in EU-28: Analysis Based on Club Convergence," Working Papers 15-38, Eastern Mediterranean University, Department of Economics.
    14. Lichun Xiong & Martin De Jong & Fengting Wang & Baodong Cheng & Chang Yu, 2018. "Spatial Spillover Effects of Environmental Pollution in China’s Central Plains Urban Agglomeration," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 10(4), pages 1-15, March.
    15. Carlos Barros & Luis Gil-Alana & Fernando Perez de Gracia, 2016. "Stationarity and Long Range Dependence of Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Evidence for Disaggregated Data," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 63(1), pages 45-56, January.
    16. Bai, Caiquan & Feng, Chen & Du, Kerui & Wang, Yuansheng & Gong, Yuan, 2020. "Understanding spatial-temporal evolution of renewable energy technology innovation in China: Evidence from convergence analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 143(C).
    17. Assaf, Ata, 2018. "Testing for bubbles in the art markets: An empirical investigation," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 340-355.
    18. Sakiru Adebola Solarin, 2017. "Testing for the Stationarity in Total Factor Productivity: Nonlinearity Evidence from 79 Countries," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 8(1), pages 141-158, March.
    19. Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa & Inekwe, John & Ivanovski, Kris & Smyth, Russell, 2020. "Stationarity properties of per capita CO2 emissions in the OECD in the very long-run: A replication and extension analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(C).
    20. Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa & Inekwe, John & Ivanovski, Kris, 2018. "Conditional convergence in per capita carbon emissions since 1900," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 228(C), pages 916-927.
    21. Tiwari, Aviral & Nasir, Muhammad Ali & shahbaz, Muhammad & Raheem, Ibrahim, 2020. "Convergence and club convergence of CO2 emissions at state levels: A nonlinear analysis of the USA," MPRA Paper 105355, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    22. Ivanovski, Kris & Awaworyi Churchill, Sefa, 2020. "Convergence and determinants of greenhouse gas emissions in Australia: A regional analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(C).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    convergence; nonlinear unit roots; panel unit roots; heterogeneous panels; cross-section dependence.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • Q28 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Government Policy
    • Q54 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Climate; Natural Disasters and their Management; Global Warming

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