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Testing for stationarity in heterogeneous panel data




This paper proposes a residual-based Lagrange multiplier (LM) test for a null that the individual observed series are stationary around a deterministic level or around a deterministic trend against the alternative of a unit root in panel data. The tests which are asymptotically similar under the null, belong to the locally best invariant (LBI) test statistics. The asymptotic distributions of the statistics are derived under the null and are shown to be normally distributed. Finite sample sizes and powers are considered in a Monte Carlo experiment. The empirical sizes of the tests are close to the true size even in small samples. The testing procedure is easy to apply, including, to panel data models with fixed effects, individual deterministic trends and heterogeneous errors across cross-sections. It is also shown how to apply the tests to the more general case of serially correlated disturbance terms.

Suggested Citation

  • Kaddour Hadri, 2000. "Testing for stationarity in heterogeneous panel data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 3(2), pages 148-161.
  • Handle: RePEc:ect:emjrnl:v:3:y:2000:i:2:p:148-161

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Perron, Pierre, 1996. "The adequacy of asymptotic approximations in the near-integrated autoregressive model with dependent errors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 70(2), pages 317-350, February.
    2. Phillips, Peter C B, 1977. "Approximations to Some Finite Sample Distributions Associated with a First-Order Stochastic Difference Equation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 45(2), pages 463-485, March.
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    4. Phillips, P. C. B., 1987. "Asymptotic Expansions in Nonstationary Vector Autoregressions," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 3(01), pages 45-68, February.
    5. Perron, Pierre, 1991. "A Continuous Time Approximation to the Unstable First-Order Autoregressive Process: The Case without an Intercept," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(1), pages 211-236, January.
    6. Perron, Pierre, 1991. "A Continuous Time Approximation to the Stationary First-Order Autoregressive Model," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(02), pages 236-252, June.
    7. Knight, J.L. & Satchell, S.E., 1993. "Asymptotic Expansions for Random Walks with Normal Errors," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(03), pages 363-376, June.
    8. Satchell, Stephen Ellwood, 1984. "Approximation to the Finite Sample Distribution for Nonstable First Order Stochastic Difference Equations," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(5), pages 1271-1289, September.
    9. Perron, Pierre, 1989. "The Calculation of the Limiting Distribution of the Least-Squares Estimator in a Near-Integrated Model," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(02), pages 241-255, August.
    10. Hisamatsu, Hiroyuki & Maekawa, Koichi, 1994. "The distribution of the Durbin-Watson statistic in integrated and near-integrated models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 61(2), pages 367-382, April.
    11. Evans, G B A & Savin, N E, 1981. "Testing for Unit Roots: 1," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(3), pages 753-779, May.
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