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A Simple Panel Unit Root Test in the Presence of Cross Section Dependence

  • Pesaran, M.H.

A number of panel unit root tests that allow for cross section dependence have been proposed in the literature, notably by Bai and Ng (2002), Moon and Perron (2003) and Phillips and Sul (2002) who use orthogonalization type procedures to asymptotically eliminate the cross dependence of the series. In this paper we propose a simple alternative test where the standard DF (or ADF) regressions are augmented with the cross section averages of lagged levels and first-differences of the individual series. A truncated version of the CADF statistics is also considered. New asymptotic results are obtained both for the individual CADF statistics and their simple averages. It is shown that the CADFi statistics are asymptotically similar and do not depend on the factor loadings under joint asymptotics where N (cross section dimension) and T (time series dimension) ? 8, such that N/T? k, where k is a fixed finite non-zero constant. But they are asymptotically correlated due to their dependence on the common factor. Despite this of the proposed tests are investigated by Monte Carlo experiments for a variety of models. It is shown that the cross sectionally augmented panel unit root tests have satisfactory size and power even for relatively small values of N and T. This is particularly true of cross sectionally augmented and truncated versions of the simple average t-test of Im, Pesaran and Shin, and Choi’s inverse normal combination test.

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Paper provided by Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge in its series Cambridge Working Papers in Economics with number 0346.

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Length: 72
Date of creation: Oct 2003
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Handle: RePEc:cam:camdae:0346
Note: EM
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.econ.cam.ac.uk/index.htm

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  1. Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2001. "A Panic Attack on Unit Roots and Cointegration," Economics Working Paper Archive 469, The Johns Hopkins University,Department of Economics.
  2. Harris, David & Leybourne, Stephen & McCabe, Brendan, 2005. "Panel Stationarity Tests for Purchasing Power Parity With Cross-Sectional Dependence," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 23, pages 395-409, October.
  3. Harvey, A. & Bates, D., 2003. "Multivariate Unit Root Tests and Testing for Convergence," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0301, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  4. Hashem Pesaran, M., 2007. "A pair-wise approach to testing for output and growth convergence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 138(1), pages 312-355, May.
  5. Costas Meghir & Luigi Pistaferri, 2004. "Income Variance Dynamics and Heterogeneity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(1), pages 1-32, 01.
  6. David Bowman, 1999. "Efficient tests for autoregressive unit roots in panel data," International Finance Discussion Papers 646, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  7. Hansen, Bruce E., 1995. "Rethinking the Univariate Approach to Unit Root Testing: Using Covariates to Increase Power," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(05), pages 1148-1171, October.
  8. Timothy K. Chue & In Choi, 2007. "Subsampling hypothesis tests for nonstationary panels with applications to exchange rates and stock prices," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 233-264.
  9. Yoosoon Chang, 2000. "Bootstrap Unit Root Tests in Panels with Cross-Sectional Dependency," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1251, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  10. Kaddour Hadri, 2000. "Testing for stationarity in heterogeneous panel data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 3(2), pages 148-161.
  11. Donald W.K. Andrews & Christopher J. Monahan, 1990. "An Improved Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimator," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 942, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  12. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2004. "General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels," CESifo Working Paper Series 1229, CESifo Group Munich.
  13. Hyungsik Roger MOON & Benoit PERRON, 2002. "Testing For A Unit Root In Panels With Dynamic Factors," Cahiers de recherche 18-2002, Centre interuniversitaire de recherche en économie quantitative, CIREQ.
  14. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2003. "Estimation and Inference in Large Heterogenous Panels with Cross Section Dependence," CESifo Working Paper Series 869, CESifo Group Munich.
  15. Graham Elliott & Thomas J. Rothenberg & James H. Stock, 1992. "Efficient Tests for an Autoregressive Unit Root," NBER Technical Working Papers 0130, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  16. Maddala, G S & Wu, Shaowen, 1999. " A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 631-52, Special I.
  17. Yongcheol Shin, 2002. "Mean Group Tests for Stationarity in Heterogeneous Panels," ESE Discussion Papers 107, Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh.
  18. Phillips, P.C.B., 1986. "Testing for a Unit Root in Time Series Regression," Cahiers de recherche 8633, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  19. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
  20. Peter C.B. Phillips, 1995. "Unit Root Tests," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1104, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  21. Choi, In, 2001. "Unit root tests for panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 249-272, April.
  22. O'Connell, Paul G. J., 1998. "The overvaluation of purchasing power parity," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 1-19, February.
  23. Peter C.B.Phillips & Donggyu Sul, 2002. "Dynamic Panel Estimation and Homogeneity Testing Under Cross Section Dependence," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1362, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  24. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
  25. George Kapetanios, 2007. "Dynamic factor extraction of cross-sectional dependence in panel unit root tests," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 313-338.
  26. Im, K.S. & Pesaran, M.H., 2003. "On The Panel Unit Root Tests Using Nonlinear Instrumental Variables," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0347, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  27. Leybourne, S J, 1995. "Testing for Unit Roots Using Forward and Reverse Dickey-Fuller Regressions," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 57(4), pages 559-71, November.
  28. Badi H. Baltagi & Chihwa Kao, 2000. "Nonstationary Panels, Cointegration in Panels and Dynamic Panels: A Survey," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 16, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
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