IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/iza/izadps/dp1240.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels

Author

Listed:
  • Pesaran, M. Hashem

    (University of Cambridge)

Abstract

This paper proposes simple tests of error cross section dependence which are applicable to a variety of panel data models, including stationary and unit root dynamic heterogeneous panels with short T and large N. The proposed tests are based on average of pair-wise correlation coefficients of the OLS residuals from the individual regressions in the panel, and can be used to test for cross section dependence of any fixed order p, as well as the case where no a priori ordering of the cross section units is assumed, referred to as CD(p) and CD tests, respectively. Asymptotic distributions of these tests are derived and their power function analyzed under different alternatives. It is shown that these tests are correctly centred for fixed N and T, and are robust to single or multiple breaks in the slope coefficients and/or error variances. The small sample properties of the tests are investigated and compared to the Lagrange multiplier test of Breusch and Pagan using Monte Carlo experiments. It is shown that the tests have the correct size in very small samples and satisfactory power, and as predicted by the theory, quite robust to the presence of unit roots and structural breaks. The use of the CD test is illustrated by applying it to study the degree of dependence in per capita output innovations across countries within a given region and across countries in different regions. The results show significant evidence of cross dependence in output innovations across many countries and regions in the world.

Suggested Citation

  • Pesaran, M. Hashem, 2004. "General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels," IZA Discussion Papers 1240, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
  • Handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1240
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://ftp.iza.org/dp1240.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Timmermann, Allan, 2005. "Small sample properties of forecasts from autoregressive models under structural breaks," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 129(1-2), pages 183-217.
    2. Baltagi, Badi H. & Feng, Qu & Kao, Chihwa, 2012. "A Lagrange Multiplier test for cross-sectional dependence in a fixed effects panel data model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 170(1), pages 164-177.
    3. Natalia Bailey & George Kapetanios & M. Hashem Pesaran, 2016. "Exponent of Cross‐Sectional Dependence: Estimation and Inference," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 31(6), pages 929-960, September.
    4. N/A, 1973. "A Correction," The Indian Economic & Social History Review, , vol. 10(2), pages 207-207, April.
    5. Robert J. Barro, 1998. "Determinants of Economic Growth: A Cross-Country Empirical Study," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262522543, December.
    6. Pesaran, H.M., 2003. "Estimation and Inference in Large Heterogeneous Panels with Cross Section Dependence," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0305, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    7. Lee, Kevin & Pesaran, M Hashem & Smith, Ron, 1997. "Growth and Convergence in Multi-country Empirical Stochastic Solow Model," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(4), pages 357-392, July-Aug..
    8. Swamy, P A V B, 1970. "Efficient Inference in a Random Coefficient Regression Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 38(2), pages 311-323, March.
    9. Pesaran M.H. & Schuermann T. & Weiner S.M., 2004. "Modeling Regional Interdependencies Using a Global Error-Correcting Macroeconometric Model," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 22, pages 129-162, April.
    10. T. S. Breusch & A. R. Pagan, 1980. "The Lagrange Multiplier Test and its Applications to Model Specification in Econometrics," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(1), pages 239-253.
    11. M. Hashem Pesaran & Aman Ullah & Takashi Yamagata, 2008. "A bias-adjusted LM test of error cross-section independence," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 11(1), pages 105-127, March.
    12. Baltagi, Badi H. & Song, Seuck Heun & Koh, Won, 2003. "Testing panel data regression models with spatial error correlation," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 117(1), pages 123-150, November.
    13. Nickell, Stephen J, 1981. "Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1417-1426, November.
    14. Guangyu Mao, 2018. "Testing for sphericity in a two-way error components panel data model," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(5), pages 491-506, May.
    15. Baltagi, Badi H. & Kao, Chihwa & Peng, Bin, 2015. "On testing for sphericity with non-normality in a fixed effects panel data model," Statistics & Probability Letters, Elsevier, vol. 98(C), pages 123-130.
    16. Chen, Jia & Gao, Jiti & Li, Degui, 2012. "A New Diagnostic Test For Cross-Section Uncorrelatedness In Nonparametric Panel Data Models," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 28(5), pages 1144-1163, October.
    17. Ahn, Seung Chan & Hoon Lee, Young & Schmidt, Peter, 2001. "GMM estimation of linear panel data models with time-varying individual effects," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 101(2), pages 219-255, April.
    18. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2015. "Testing Weak Cross-Sectional Dependence in Large Panels," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(6-10), pages 1089-1117, December.
    19. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2015. "Testing Weak Cross-Sectional Dependence in Large Panels," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(6-10), pages 1089-1117, December.
    20. Ng, Serena, 2006. "Testing Cross-Section Correlation in Panel Data Using Spacings," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 24, pages 12-23, January.
    21. Sarafidis, Vasilis & Yamagata, Takashi & Robertson, Donald, 2009. "A test of cross section dependence for a linear dynamic panel model with regressors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 148(2), pages 149-161, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. M. Hashem Pesaran, 0. "General diagnostic tests for cross-sectional dependence in panels," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 0, pages 1-38.
    2. Baltagi, Badi H. & Feng, Qu & Kao, Chihwa, 2016. "Estimation of heterogeneous panels with structural breaks," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 191(1), pages 176-195.
    3. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2015. "Testing Weak Cross-Sectional Dependence in Large Panels," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(6-10), pages 1089-1117, December.
    4. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2015. "Testing Weak Cross-Sectional Dependence in Large Panels," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(6-10), pages 1089-1117, December.
    5. Baltagi, Badi H. & Feng, Qu & Kao, Chihwa, 2012. "A Lagrange Multiplier test for cross-sectional dependence in a fixed effects panel data model," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 170(1), pages 164-177.
    6. Halunga, Andreea G. & Orme, Chris D. & Yamagata, Takashi, 2017. "A heteroskedasticity robust Breusch–Pagan test for Contemporaneous correlation in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 198(2), pages 209-230.
    7. R. Golinelli & I. Mammi & A. Musolesi, 2018. "Parameter heterogeneity, persistence and cross-sectional dependence: new insights on fiscal policy reaction functions for the Euro area," Working Papers wp1120, Dipartimento Scienze Economiche, Universita' di Bologna.
    8. Badi H. Baltagi & Chihwa Kao & Fa Wang, 2017. "Asymptotic power of the sphericity test under weak and strong factors in a fixed effects panel data model," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(6-9), pages 853-882, October.
    9. Vasilis Sarafidis & Tom Wansbeek, 2012. "Cross-Sectional Dependence in Panel Data Analysis," Econometric Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(5), pages 483-531, September.
    10. Peng, Bin & Yu, Junqi & Zhu, Yi, 2021. "A heteroskedasticity robust test for cross-sectional correlation in a fixed effects panel data model," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 201(C).
    11. Badi H. Baltagi & Chihwa Kao & Bin Peng, 2016. "Testing Cross-Sectional Correlation in Large Panel Data Models with Serial Correlation," Econometrics, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(4), pages 1-24, November.
    12. Alexander Chudik & M. Hashem Pesaran, 2013. "Large panel data models with cross-sectional dependence: a survey," Globalization Institute Working Papers 153, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
    13. Feng, Long & Zhao, Ping & Ding, Yanling & Liu, Binghui, 2021. "Rank-based tests of cross-sectional dependence in panel data models," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 153(C).
    14. Badi H. Baltagi & Qu Feng & Chihwa Kao, 2009. "Testing for Sphericity in a Fixed Effects Panel Data Model (Revised July 2009)," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 112, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
    15. Daniel Goya, 2014. "The Multiple Impacts of the Exchange Rate on Export Diversification," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 1436, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
    16. Alexander Chudik & Janet Koech & Mark Wynne, 2021. "The Heterogeneous Effects of Global and National Business Cycles on Employment in US States and Metropolitan Areas," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 83(2), pages 495-517, April.
    17. Halleck Vega, Solmaria & Elhorst, J. Paul, 2016. "A regional unemployment model simultaneously accounting for serial dynamics, spatial dependence and common factors," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 85-95.
    18. Kapetanios, George & Serlenga, Laura & Shin, Yongcheol, 2021. "Estimation and inference for multi-dimensional heterogeneous panel datasets with hierarchical multi-factor error structure," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 220(2), pages 504-531.
    19. Goya, Daniel, 2020. "The exchange rate and export variety: A cross-country analysis with long panel estimators," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 649-665.
    20. Michele Aquaro & Natalia Bailey & M. Hashem Pesaran, 2021. "Estimation and inference for spatial models with heterogeneous coefficients: An application to US house prices," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 36(1), pages 18-44, January.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    cross section dependence; spatial dependence; diagnostic tests; dynamic heterogenous panels; empirical growth;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C12 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Hypothesis Testing: General
    • C13 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Estimation: General
    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iza:izadps:dp1240. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.iza.org .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Holger Hinte (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.iza.org .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.