IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Cross-sectional Dependence in Panel Data Analysis

  • Sarafidis, Vasilis
  • Wansbeek, Tom

This paper provides an overview of the existing literature on panel data models with error cross-sectional dependence. We distinguish between spatial dependence and factor structure dependence and we analyse the implications of weak and strong cross-sectional dependence on the properties of the estimators. We consider estimation under strong and weak exogeneity of the regressors for both T fixed and T large cases. Available tests for error cross-sectional dependence and methods for determining the number of factors are discussed in detail. The finite-sample properties of some estimators and statistics are investigated using Monte Carlo experiments.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
File Function: original version
Download Restriction: no

File URL:
File Function: revised version
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 20367.

in new window

Date of creation: Feb 2010
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:20367
Contact details of provider: Postal: Schackstr. 4, D-80539 Munich, Germany
Phone: +49-(0)89-2180-2219
Fax: +49-(0)89-2180-3900
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Nickell, Stephen J, 1981. "Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1417-26, November.
  2. Srivastava, V. K. & Dwivedi, T. D., 1979. "Estimation of seemingly unrelated regression equations : A brief survey," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 10(1), pages 15-32, April.
  3. Frees, Edward W., 1995. "Assessing cross-sectional correlation in panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 69(2), pages 393-414, October.
  4. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2004. "Estimation and Inference in Large Heterogeneous Panels with a Multifactor Error Structure," CESifo Working Paper Series 1331, CESifo Group Munich.
  5. repec:adr:anecst:y:2003:i:70:p:03 is not listed on IDEAS
  6. Mundlak, Yair, 1978. "On the Pooling of Time Series and Cross Section Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(1), pages 69-85, January.
  7. Phillips, Peter C.B. & Sul, Donggyu, 2007. "Bias in dynamic panel estimation with fixed effects, incidental trends and cross section dependence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 137(1), pages 162-188, March.
  8. Amengual, Dante & Watson, Mark W., 2007. "Consistent Estimation of the Number of Dynamic Factors in a Large N and T Panel," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 25, pages 91-96, January.
  9. Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2000. "Determining the Number of Factors in Approximate Factor Models," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1504, Econometric Society.
  10. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2004. "General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels," CESifo Working Paper Series 1229, CESifo Group Munich.
  11. Seung C. Ahn & Alex R. Horenstein, 2013. "Eigenvalue Ratio Test for the Number of Factors," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 81(3), pages 1203-1227, 05.
  12. Alexander Chudik & M. Hashem Pesaran & Elisa Tosetti, 2009. "Weak and Strong Cross Section Dependence and Estimation of Large Panels," CESifo Working Paper Series 2689, CESifo Group Munich.
  13. M. Hashem Pesaran & Aman Ullah & Takashi Yamagata, 2008. "A bias-adjusted LM test of error cross-section independence," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 11(1), pages 105-127, 03.
  14. Yamagata, Takashi, 2008. "A joint serial correlation test for linear panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 146(1), pages 135-145, September.
  15. Kapetanios, George & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Yamagata, Takashi, 2006. "Panels with Nonstationary Multifactor Error Structures," IZA Discussion Papers 2243, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  16. M Arellano & O Bover, 1990. "Another Look at the Instrumental Variable Estimation of Error-Components Models," CEP Discussion Papers dp0007, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  17. Forni, Mario & Lippi, Marco, 2000. "The Generalized Dynamic Factor Model: Representation Theory," CEPR Discussion Papers 2509, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  18. Anderson, T. W. & Hsiao, Cheng., 1980. "Estimation of Dynamic Models with Error Components," Working Papers 336, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
  19. Jerry Coakley & Ana-Maria Fuertes & Ron Smith, 2002. "A Principal Components Approach to Cross-Section Dependence in Panels," 10th International Conference on Panel Data, Berlin, July 5-6, 2002 B5-3, International Conferences on Panel Data.
  20. Kapoor, Mudit & Kelejian, Harry H. & Prucha, Ingmar R., 2007. "Panel data models with spatially correlated error components," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 140(1), pages 97-130, September.
  21. Tom Wansbeek & Erik Meijer, 2007. "Comments on: Panel data analysis—advantages and challenges," TEST: An Official Journal of the Spanish Society of Statistics and Operations Research, Springer, vol. 16(1), pages 33-36, May.
  22. Hsiao, Cheng & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Pick, Andreas, 2007. "Diagnostic Tests of Cross Section Independence for Nonlinear Panel Data Models," IZA Discussion Papers 2756, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  23. Sarafidis, Vasilis, 2009. "GMM Estimation of Short Dynamic Panel Data Models With Error Cross-Sectional Dependence," MPRA Paper 25176, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  24. Hallin, Marc & Liska, Roman, 2007. "Determining the Number of Factors in the General Dynamic Factor Model," Journal of the American Statistical Association, American Statistical Association, vol. 102, pages 603-617, June.
  25. John C. Driscoll & Aart C. Kraay, 1998. "Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation With Spatially Dependent Panel Data," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(4), pages 549-560, November.
  26. Mario Forni & Marc Hallin & Marco Lippi & Lucrezia Reichlin, 2000. "The Generalized Dynamic-Factor Model: Identification And Estimation," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 82(4), pages 540-554, November.
  27. M. Hashem Pesaran & Badi H. Baltagi, 2007. "Heterogeneity and cross section dependence in panel data models: theory and applications introduction," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 229-232.
  28. Jushan Bai, 2009. "Panel Data Models With Interactive Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(4), pages 1229-1279, 07.
  29. Seung C. Ahn & Young H. Lee & Peter Schmidt, 2006. "Panel Data Models with Multiple Time-Varying Individual Effects," Working Papers 0702, University of Crete, Department of Economics.
  30. Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
  31. Christophe Hurlin & Valérie Mignon, 2007. "Second Generation Panel Unit Root Tests," Working Papers halshs-00159842, HAL.
  32. Holtz-Eakin, Douglas & Newey, Whitney & Rosen, Harvey S, 1988. "Estimating Vector Autoregressions with Panel Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 56(6), pages 1371-95, November.
  33. Conley, T. G., 1999. "GMM estimation with cross sectional dependence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 92(1), pages 1-45, September.
  34. repec:oup:restud:v:58:y:1991:i:2:p:277-97 is not listed on IDEAS
  35. Bekker, Paul A, 1994. "Alternative Approximations to the Distributions of Instrumental Variable Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(3), pages 657-81, May.
  36. Jia Chen & Jiti Gao & Degui Li, 2009. "A New Diagnostic Test for Cross-Section Independence in Nonparametric Panel Data Model," School of Economics Working Papers 2009-16, University of Adelaide, School of Economics.
  37. Robertson, Donald & Sarafidis, Vasilis & Symons, James, 2010. "IV Estimation of Panels with Factor Residuals," MPRA Paper 26166, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  38. Kontoghiorghes, E. J. & Clarke, M. R. B., 1995. "An alternative approach for the numerical solution of seemingly unrelated regression equations models," Computational Statistics & Data Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 369-377, April.
  39. Robertson, Donald & Symons, James, 2007. "Maximum likelihood factor analysis with rank-deficient sample covariance matrices," Journal of Multivariate Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 98(4), pages 813-828, April.
  40. Kelejian, Harry H. & Prucha, Ingmar R., 2010. "Specification and estimation of spatial autoregressive models with autoregressive and heteroskedastic disturbances," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 157(1), pages 53-67, July.
  41. Greenaway-McGrevy, Ryan & Han, Chirok & Sul, Donggyu, 2012. "Estimating the number of common factors in serially dependent approximate factor models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 116(3), pages 531-534.
  42. Goldberger, Arthur S, 1972. "Structural Equation Methods in the Social Sciences," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 40(6), pages 979-1001, November.
  43. Sarafidis, Vasilis & Yamagata, Takashi & Robertson, Donald, 2009. "A test of cross section dependence for a linear dynamic panel model with regressors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 148(2), pages 149-161, February.
  44. Ahn, Seung Chan & Hoon Lee, Young & Schmidt, Peter, 2001. "GMM estimation of linear panel data models with time-varying individual effects," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 101(2), pages 219-255, April.
  45. Vasilis Sarafidis & Donald Robertson, 2009. "On the impact of error cross-sectional dependence in short dynamic panel estimation," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 12(1), pages 62-81, 03.
  46. Hansen, Lars Peter, 1982. "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 1029-54, July.
  47. Ahn, Seung C. & Schmidt, Peter, 1995. "Efficient estimation of models for dynamic panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 5-27, July.
  48. Lee, Lung-fei, 2007. "GMM and 2SLS estimation of mixed regressive, spatial autoregressive models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 137(2), pages 489-514, April.
  49. repec:oup:restud:v:47:y:1980:i:1:p:239-53 is not listed on IDEAS
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:20367. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.