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The Performance of Panel Unit Root and Stationarity Tests: Results from a Large Scale Simulation Study

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  • Jaroslava Hlouskova
  • Martin Wagner

Abstract

This paper presents results concerning the size and power of first generation panel unit root and stationarity tests obtained from a large scale simulation study, with in total about 290 million test statistics computed. The tests developed in the following papers are included: Levin, Lin and Chu (2002), Harris and Tzavalis (1999), Breitung (2000), Im, Pesaran and Shin (1997 and 2003), Maddala and Wu (1999), Hadri (2000), and Hadri and Larsson (2005). Our simulation set-up is designed to address i.a. the following issues. First, we assess the performance as a function of the time and the cross-section dimension. Second, we analyze the impact of positive MA roots on the test performance. Third, we investigate the power of the panel unit root tests (and the size of the stationarity tests) for a variety of first order autoregressive coefficients. Fourth, we consider both of the two usual specifications of deterministic variables in the unit root literature.

Suggested Citation

  • Jaroslava Hlouskova & Martin Wagner, 2005. "The Performance of Panel Unit Root and Stationarity Tests: Results from a Large Scale Simulation Study," Economics Working Papers ECO2005/05, European University Institute.
  • Handle: RePEc:eui:euiwps:eco2005/05
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Whitney K. Newey & Kenneth D. West, 1994. "Automatic Lag Selection in Covariance Matrix Estimation," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 61(4), pages 631-653.
    2. Moon, H.R.Hyungsik Roger & Perron, Benoit, 2004. "Testing for a unit root in panels with dynamic factors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 122(1), pages 81-126, September.
    3. Kaddour Hadri, 2000. "Testing for stationarity in heterogeneous panel data," Econometrics Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 3(2), pages 148-161.
    4. Kwiatkowski, Denis & Phillips, Peter C. B. & Schmidt, Peter & Shin, Yongcheol, 1992. "Testing the null hypothesis of stationarity against the alternative of a unit root : How sure are we that economic time series have a unit root?," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1-3), pages 159-178.
    5. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2007. "A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 265-312.
    6. Andrews, Donald W K, 1991. "Heteroskedasticity and Autocorrelation Consistent Covariance Matrix Estimation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, pages 817-858.
    7. Chang, Yoosoon, 2002. "Nonlinear IV unit root tests in panels with cross-sectional dependency," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, pages 261-292.
    8. Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2004. "A PANIC Attack on Unit Roots and Cointegration," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 72(4), pages 1127-1177, July.
    9. Phillips, P C B, 1987. "Time Series Regression with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, pages 277-301.
    10. Im, Kyung So & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Shin, Yongcheol, 2003. "Testing for unit roots in heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 53-74, July.
    11. Karlsson, Sune & Lothgren, Mickael, 2000. "On the power and interpretation of panel unit root tests," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 66(3), pages 249-255, March.
    12. Peter C. B. Phillips & Hyungsik R. Moon, 1999. "Linear Regression Limit Theory for Nonstationary Panel Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, pages 1057-1112.
    13. Choi, In, 2001. "Unit root tests for panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 249-272, April.
    14. Harris, Richard D. F. & Tzavalis, Elias, 1999. "Inference for unit roots in dynamic panels where the time dimension is fixed," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 91(2), pages 201-226, August.
    15. Phillips, P C B, 1987. "Time Series Regression with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, pages 277-301.
    16. Horowitz, Joel L. & Savin, N. E., 2000. "Empirically relevant critical values for hypothesis tests: A bootstrap approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 375-389, April.
    17. Agiakloglou, Christos & Newbold, Paul, 1996. "The balance between size and power in Dickey-Fuller tests with data-dependent rules for the choice of truncation lag," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 52(3), pages 229-234, September.
    18. Martin Wagner & Jaroslava Hlouskova, 2004. "What's Really the Story with this Balassa-Samuelson Effect in the CEECs?," Diskussionsschriften dp0416, Universitaet Bern, Departement Volkswirtschaft.
    19. MacKinnon, James G, 1994. "Approximate Asymptotic Distribution Functions for Unit-Root and Cointegration Tests," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 12(2), pages 167-176, April.
    20. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
    21. William C. Horrace & Kurt E. Schnier, 2010. "Fixed-Effect Estimation of Highly Mobile Production Technologies," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, pages 1432-1445.
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    Keywords

    Panel Unit Root Test; Panel Stationarity Test; Size; Power; Simulation Study;

    JEL classification:

    • C12 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Hypothesis Testing: General
    • C15 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Statistical Simulation Methods: General
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models

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