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A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence

  • M. Hashem Pesaran

    (Faculty of Economics and Centre for International Macroeconomics and Finance, Cambridge University, UK, and USC)

A number of panel unit root tests that allow for cross-section dependence have been proposed in the literature that use orthogonalization type procedures to asymptotically eliminate the cross-dependence of the series before standard panel unit root tests are applied to the transformed series. In this paper we propose a simple alternative where the standard augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) regressions are augmented with the cross-section averages of lagged levels and first-differences of the individual series. New asymptotic results are obtained both for the individual cross-sectionally augmented ADF (CADF) statistics and for their simple averages. It is shown that the individual CADF statistics are asymptotically similar and do not depend on the factor loadings. The limit distribution of the average CADF statistic is shown to exist and its critical values are tabulated. Small sample properties of the proposed test are investigated by Monte Carlo experiments. The proposed test is applied to a panel of 17 OECD real exchange rate series as well as to log real earnings of households in the PSID data. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1002/jae.951
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Article provided by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. in its journal Journal of Applied Econometrics.

Volume (Year): 22 (2007)
Issue (Month): 2 ()
Pages: 265-312

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Handle: RePEc:jae:japmet:v:22:y:2007:i:2:p:265-312
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  1. Hansen, Bruce E., 1995. "Rethinking the Univariate Approach to Unit Root Testing: Using Covariates to Increase Power," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(05), pages 1148-1171, October.
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  7. Pesaran, M.H., 2004. "‘General Diagnostic Tests for Cross Section Dependence in Panels’," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0435, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  8. Peter C.B.Phillips & Donggyu Sul, 2002. "Dynamic Panel Estimation and Homogeneity Testing Under Cross Section Dependence," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1362, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  9. Peter C.B. Phillips, 1995. "Unit Root Tests," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1104, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
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  11. Choi, In, 2001. "Unit root tests for panel data," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 249-272, April.
  12. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2003. "Estimation and Inference in Large Heterogenous Panels with Cross Section Dependence," CESifo Working Paper Series 869, CESifo Group Munich.
  13. MOON, Hyungsik Roger & PERRON, Benoit., 2002. "Testing for a Unit Root in Panels with Dynamic Factors," Cahiers de recherche 2002-18, Universite de Montreal, Departement de sciences economiques.
  14. Yongcheol Shin & Andy Snell, 2004. "Mean Group Tests for Stationarity in Heterogenous Panels," ESE Discussion Papers 107, Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh.
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  17. Jushan Bai & Serena Ng, 2001. "A Panic Attack on Unit Roots and Cointegration," Economics Working Paper Archive 469, The Johns Hopkins University,Department of Economics.
  18. Im, K.S. & Pesaran, M.H., 2003. "On The Panel Unit Root Tests Using Nonlinear Instrumental Variables," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 0347, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  19. Badi H. Baltagi & Chihwa Kao, 2000. "Nonstationary Panels, Cointegration in Panels and Dynamic Panels: A Survey," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 16, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
  20. Yoosoon Chang, 2000. "Bootstrap Unit Root Tests in Panels with Cross-Sectional Dependency," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 1585, Econometric Society.
  21. Levin, Andrew & Lin, Chien-Fu & James Chu, Chia-Shang, 2002. "Unit root tests in panel data: asymptotic and finite-sample properties," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 108(1), pages 1-24, May.
  22. Maddala, G S & Wu, Shaowen, 1999. " A Comparative Study of Unit Root Tests with Panel Data and a New Simple Test," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 631-52, Special I.
  23. George Kapetanios, 2007. "Dynamic factor extraction of cross-sectional dependence in panel unit root tests," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 313-338.
  24. Pasaran, M.H. & Im, K.S. & Shin, Y., 1995. "Testing for Unit Roots in Heterogeneous Panels," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9526, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  25. Kaddour Hadri, 1999. "Testing For Stationarity In Heterogeneous Panel Data," Research Papers 1999_04, University of Liverpool Management School.
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  28. Timothy K. Chue & In Choi, 2007. "Subsampling hypothesis tests for nonstationary panels with applications to exchange rates and stock prices," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 233-264.
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