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The environmental Kuznets curve after 25 years

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  • David I. Stern

    () (Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University)

Abstract

The environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) has been the dominant approach among economists to modeling aggregate pollution emissions and ambient pollution concentrations over the last quarter century. Despite this, the EKC was criticized almost from the start and decomposition approaches have been more popular in other disciplines working on global climate change. More recently, convergence approaches to modeling emissions have become popular. This paper reviews the history of the EKC and alternative approaches. Applying an approach that synthesizes the EKC and convergence approaches, I show that convergence is important for explaining both pollution emissions and concentrations. On the other hand, while economic growth has had a monotonic positive effect on carbon and sulfur emissions, the EKC holds for concentrations of particulates. Negative time effects are important for sulfur emissions. The EKC seems to be most useful for modeling the ambient concentrations of pollutants it was originally applied to.

Suggested Citation

  • David I. Stern, 2015. "The environmental Kuznets curve after 25 years," CCEP Working Papers 1514, Centre for Climate Economics & Policy, Crawford School of Public Policy, The Australian National University.
  • Handle: RePEc:een:ccepwp:1514
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    Citations

    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. The Environmental Kuznets Curve after 25 Years
      by noreply@blogger.com (David Stern) in Stochastic Trend on 2016-01-04 16:20:00
    2. Dynamics of the Environmental Kuznets Curve
      by noreply@blogger.com (David Stern) in Stochastic Trend on 2016-07-21 15:08:00
    3. The EKC in a Nutshell
      by noreply@blogger.com (David Stern) in Stochastic Trend on 2016-07-25 11:55:00
    4. Annual Review 2016
      by noreply@blogger.com (David Stern) in Stochastic Trend on 2016-12-26 17:08:00
    5. Annual Review 2017
      by noreply@blogger.com (David Stern) in Stochastic Trend on 2017-12-28 02:26:00

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    air pollution; economic growth; environmental Kuznets curve; convergence; climate change;

    JEL classification:

    • Q53 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Air Pollution; Water Pollution; Noise; Hazardous Waste; Solid Waste; Recycling
    • Q56 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - Environment and Development; Environment and Trade; Sustainability; Environmental Accounts and Accounting; Environmental Equity; Population Growth

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