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Environmental Kuznets Curve: Conclusive Econometric Evidence for CO 2

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  • Gregory C. Chow
  • Jie Li

Abstract

This paper begins with a statistical formulation of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) and discusses the major econometric problems raised in the literature in testing this hypothesis using panel data. A simple t-test is then presented that avoids these econometric problems. The result from applying the t-test confirms conclusively the EKC for CO 2 as formulated.

Suggested Citation

  • Gregory C. Chow & Jie Li, 2014. "Environmental Kuznets Curve: Conclusive Econometric Evidence for CO 2," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(1), pages 1-7, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:bla:pacecr:v:19:y:2014:i:1:p:1-7
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1111/1468-0106.12048
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    2. Perron, Pierre, 1989. "The Great Crash, the Oil Price Shock, and the Unit Root Hypothesis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 57(6), pages 1361-1401, November.
    3. Fama, Eugene F & MacBeth, James D, 1973. "Risk, Return, and Equilibrium: Empirical Tests," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 607-636, May-June.
    4. Stern, David I., 2004. "The Rise and Fall of the Environmental Kuznets Curve," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1419-1439, August.
    5. Romero-Avila, Diego, 2008. "Questioning the empirical basis of the environmental Kuznets curve for CO2: New evidence from a panel stationarity test robust to multiple breaks and cross-dependence," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(3), pages 559-574, January.
    6. Dinda, Soumyananda, 2004. "Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis: A Survey," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 431-455, August.
    7. Granger, C. W. J. & Newbold, P., 1974. "Spurious regressions in econometrics," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 111-120, July.
    8. Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-377.
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    Cited by:

    1. Sofien, Tiba & Omri, Anis, 2016. "Literature survey on the relationships between energy variables, environment and economic growth," MPRA Paper 82555, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 Sep 2016.
    2. repec:eee:enepol:v:123:y:2018:i:c:p:749-758 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Yang, Xuechun & Lou, Feng & Sun, Mingxing & Wang, Renqing & Wang, Yutao, 2017. "Study of the relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and the economic growth of Russia based on the Environmental Kuznets Curve," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 193(C), pages 162-173.
    4. Yang, Guangfei & Sun, Tao & Wang, Jianliang & Li, Xianneng, 2015. "Modeling the nexus between carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 104-117.
    5. repec:eco:journ2:2018-03-24 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Pascalau, Razvan & Qirjo, Dhimitri, 2017. "TTIP and the Environmental Kuznets Curve," MPRA Paper 80192, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. repec:eee:rensus:v:82:y:2018:i:p3:p:4170-4178 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Aslan Alper & Gozbasi Onur, 2016. "Environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis for sub-elements of the carbon emissions in China," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 82(2), pages 1327-1340, June.
    9. repec:kap:jbioec:v:19:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s10818-017-9243-1 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Jian-Xin Wu & Ling-Yun He & ZhongXiang Zhang, 2019. "Does China Fall into Poverty-Environment Traps? Evidence from Long-term Income Dynamics and Urban Air Pollution," Working Papers 2019.05, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
    11. Puyang Sun & Yan Yuan, 2015. "Industrial Agglomeration and Environmental Degradation: Empirical Evidence in Chinese Cities," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(4), pages 544-568, October.
    12. repec:bla:pacecr:v:22:y:2017:i:3:p:435-479 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Mrabet, Zouhair & Alsamara, Mouyad, 2017. "Testing the Kuznets Curve hypothesis for Qatar: A comparison between carbon dioxide and ecological footprint," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 1366-1375.
    14. repec:eee:rensus:v:76:y:2017:i:c:p:138-154 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Al-Mulali, Usama & Saboori, Behnaz & Ozturk, Ilhan, 2015. "Investigating the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis in Vietnam," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 123-131.
    16. KPEMOUA, Palakiyem, 2016. "Analyse Du Lien Entre Les Emissions De Co2, Leur Restriction Et La Croissance Economique Du Togo
      [Analysis Of The Nexus Between Co2 Emission, Their Restriction And Economic Growth Of Togo]
      ," MPRA Paper 77624, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 10 Oct 2016.
    17. Usama Al-Mulali & Sakiru Solarin & Ilhan Ozturk, 2016. "Investigating the presence of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis in Kenya: an autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 80(3), pages 1729-1747, February.
    18. Chi-Chur Chao & Eden S. H. Yu, 2015. "Environmental Impacts of Tariff and Tax Reforms Under Origin and Destination Principles," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(2), pages 310-322, May.
    19. David I. Stern, 2017. "The environmental Kuznets curve after 25 years," Journal of Bioeconomics, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 7-28, April.

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