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Bayesian and Classical Approaches to Instrumental Variables Regression

  • Frank Kleibergen

    (Erasmus University Rotterdam)

  • Eric Zivot

    (University of Washington)

We estabilsh the relationships between certain Bayesian and classical approaches to instrumental variables regression. We determine the form of priors that lead to posteriors for structural paameters that have similar properties as classical 2SLS and LIML and in doing so provide some new insight to the small sample behavior of Bayesian and classical procedures in the limited information simultaneous equations model. Our approach is motivated by the relationship between Bayesian and classical procedures in linear regression models: i.e., Bayesian analysis with a diffuse prior leads to posteriors that are identical in form to the finite sample density of classical least squares estimators. We use the fact that the instrumental variables regression model can be obtained from a reduced rank restriction on a multivariate linear model to determine the priors that give rise to posteriors that have properties similar to classical 2SLS and LIML. As a by-product of this approach we provide a novel way to dtermine the exact finite sample density of the LIML estimator and theprior that corresponds with classical LIML. We show that the traditional Dreze (1976) and a new Bayesian Two Stage approach are similar to 2SLS whereas the approach based on the Jeffreys' prior corresponds to LIML.

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File URL: http://econwpa.repec.org/eps/em/papers/9812/9812002.pdf
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Paper provided by EconWPA in its series Econometrics with number 9812002.

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Length: 38 pages
Date of creation: 31 Dec 1998
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpem:9812002
Note: Type of Document - Adobe Acrobat (.pdf); prepared on IBM PC ; to print on PostScript; pages: 38; figures: included
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://econwpa.repec.org

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  1. Zivot, E & Startz, R & Nelson, C-R, 1997. "Valid Confidence Intervals and Inference in the Presence of Weak Instruments," Working Papers 97-17, University of Washington, Department of Economics.
  2. Park, Soo-Bin, 1982. "Some sampling properties of minimum expected loss (MELO) estimators of structural coefficients," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 295-311, April.
  3. DREZE, Jacques H., . "Bayesian limited information analysis of the simultaneous equations model," CORE Discussion Papers RP -300, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  4. Chuanming Gao & Kajal Lahiri, 2000. "A Comparison of Some Recent Bayesian and Classical Procedures for Simultaneous Equation Models with Weak Instruments," Econometric Society World Congress 2000 Contributed Papers 0230, Econometric Society.
  5. Zellner, Arnold, 1978. "Estimation of functions of population means and regression coefficients including structural coefficients : A minimum expected loss (MELO) approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 127-158, October.
  6. ZELLNER, A. & BAUWENS, Luc & VAN DIJK, H., 1987. "Bayesian specification analysis and estimation of simultaneous equation models using Monte Carlo methods," CORE Discussion Papers 1987056, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  7. John C. Chao & Peter C.B. Phillips, 1998. "Jeffreys Prior Analysis of the Simultaneous Equations Model in the Case with n+1 Endogenous Variables," Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers 1198, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
  8. DREZE, Jacques H., . "Bayesian regression analysis using poly-t densities," CORE Discussion Papers RP -316, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  9. Sawa, Takamitsu, 1973. "The mean square error of a combined estimator and numerical comparison with the TSLS estimator," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 1(2), pages 115-132, June.
  10. Russell L. Lamb & Francis X. Diebold, 1996. "Why are estimates of agricultural supply response so variable?," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 96-8, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
  11. Zellner, Arnold & Tobias, Justin, 2001. "Further Results on Bayesian Method of Moments Analysis of the Multiple Regression Model," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 42(1), pages 121-40, February.
  12. John Shea, 1997. "Instrument Relevance in Multivariate Linear Models: A Simple Measure," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(2), pages 348-352, May.
  13. Anderson, T W & Sawa, Takamitsu, 1979. "Evaluation of the Distribution Function of the Two-Stage Least Squares Estimate," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(1), pages 163-82, January.
  14. Douglas Staiger & James H. Stock, 1994. "Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," NBER Technical Working Papers 0151, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Richard Startz & Charles Nelson & Eric Zivot, 1999. "Improved Inference for the Instrumental Variable Estimator," Econometrics 9905001, EconWPA.
  16. Chao, J. C. & Phillips, P. C. B., 1998. "Posterior distributions in limited information analysis of the simultaneous equations model using the Jeffreys prior," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 49-86, August.
  17. Kleibergen, F.R. & van Dijk, H.K., 1997. "Bayesian Simultaneous Equations Analysis using Reduced Rank Structures," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI 9714/A, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
  18. Jiahui Wang & Eric Zivot, 1998. "Inference on Structural Parameters in Instrumental Variables Regression with Weak Instruments," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(6), pages 1389-1404, November.
  19. Fuller, Wayne A, 1977. "Some Properties of a Modification of the Limited Information Estimator," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 45(4), pages 939-53, May.
  20. Zellner, Arnold, 1998. "The finite sample properties of simultaneous equations' estimates and estimators Bayesian and non-Bayesian approaches," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 83(1-2), pages 185-212.
  21. Maddala, G S, 1976. "Weak Priors and Sharp Posteriors in Simultaneous Equation Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 44(2), pages 345-51, March.
  22. Kleibergen, Frank & Paap, Richard, 2002. "Priors, posteriors and bayes factors for a Bayesian analysis of cointegration," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 111(2), pages 223-249, December.
  23. Forchini, G. & Hillier, G.H., 1999. "Conditional inference for possibly unidentified structural equations," Discussion Paper Series In Economics And Econometrics 9906, Economics Division, School of Social Sciences, University of Southampton.
  24. Anderson, T. W. & Kunitomo, Naoto & Morimune, Kimio, 1986. "Comparing Single-Equation Estimators in a Simultaneous Equation System," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(01), pages 1-32, April.
  25. Anderson, T W, 1977. "Asymptotic Expansions of the Distributions of Estimates in Simultaneous Equations for Alternative Parameter Sequences," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 45(2), pages 509-18, March.
  26. Phillips, P.C.B., 1989. "Partially Identified Econometric Models," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(02), pages 181-240, August.
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