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Mis-allocation of student teacher ratio, class size and per student expenditure leads to the wastage of school resource inputs and lower academic achievement: an issue of resource management


  • Dahar, Muhammad Arshad
  • Dahar, Rashida Ahmad
  • Dahar, Riffat Tahira


This study was conducted to find out the impact of student teacher ratio, class size and per student expenditure on the academic achievement of students at secondary stage in Punjab (Pakistan). Student teacher ratio, class size and per student expenditure are very important school resource inputs. The lesser student teacher ratio and class size, and the higher per student expenditure are very effective for producing higher level of academic achievement; however, it depends upon their proper allocation among schools. Population of the study comprised all secondary and higher secondary schools, secondary teachers and secondary students in Punjab. Overall, a total of 288 schools, then 20 students and 10 teachers from each school were randomly selected as the sample of the study. The study identified the student teacher ratio and class size through school profile proforma. The longitudinal data of academic achievement in the form of aggregate marks of the annual examinations of the Classes VI, VII, & VIII as prior achievement and that of the Class X as academic achievement of the same students through “Result Sheet”. The data were summarized at school level and then analyzed collectively. Stepwise Regression analysis with linear function was used to find out the differential impact of student teacher ratio and class size on the academic achievement. The study found that there is much variation and misallocation in student teacher ratio, class size and per student expenditure among schools. The study found that misallocation of student teacher ratio, class size and per student expenditure leads to the wastage of resources and lower level of academic achievement. Reduction in student teacher ratio and class size, and addition in per student expenditure are very expensive; therefore, policy can be decided considering the funds constraints. However, allocation of student teacher ratio, class size and per student expenditure can be equalized within the scarce funds. This equal allocation of these resource inputs may lead to the effective use of school resource inputs and produce higher level of academic achievement.

Suggested Citation

  • Dahar, Muhammad Arshad & Dahar, Rashida Ahmad & Dahar, Riffat Tahira, 2009. "Mis-allocation of student teacher ratio, class size and per student expenditure leads to the wastage of school resource inputs and lower academic achievement: an issue of resource management," MPRA Paper 27835, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:27835

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Alan B. Krueger, 1999. "Experimental Estimates of Education Production Functions," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 114(2), pages 497-532.
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    8. Michaelowa, Katharina, 2001. "Primary Education Quality in Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa: Determinants of Learning Achievement and Efficiency Considerations," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(10), pages 1699-1716, October.
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    12. Robert Allen, 2016. "Revising England's Social Tables Once Again," Economics Series Working Papers 146, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
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    More about this item


    prior achievement; student teacher ratio; class size; per student expenditure; academic achievement;

    JEL classification:

    • M0 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - General


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