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Education Production Function and Class-Size Effects in Japanese Public Schools

  • Masakazu Hojo

Education production functions are estimated using student-level achievement data for Japanese students, with emphasis on estimating the causal effect of class size on students' academic performance. The empirical results show that students‟ test scores are strongly affected by individual and family backgrounds, whereas school resource variables and teacher characteristics have a more limited impact. The causal effect of class size, which is currently being politically debated in Japan, is investigated using a regression discontinuity design. The estimation results suggest that class-size reduction has a weak impact on the academic performance of Japanese students.

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File URL: http://gcoe.ier.hit-u.ac.jp/research/discussion/2008/pdf/gd11-194.pdf
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Paper provided by Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University in its series Global COE Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series with number gd11-194.

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Date of creation: Jul 2011
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Handle: RePEc:hst:ghsdps:gd11-194
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  1. Miguel Urquiola, 2006. "Identifying Class Size Effects in Developing Countries: Evidence from Rural Bolivia," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 88(1), pages 171-177, February.
  2. Martin Browning & Eskil Heinesen, 2007. "Class Size, Teacher Hours and Educational Attainment," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 109(2), pages 415-438, 06.
  3. Wößmann, Ludger, 2003. "Schooling resources, educational institutions and student performance: The international evidence," Munich Reprints in Economics 19661, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  4. Caroline M. Hoxby, 2000. "The Effects Of Class Size On Student Achievement: New Evidence From Population Variation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 115(4), pages 1239-1285, November.
  5. Kelly Bedard & Elizabeth Dhuey, 2006. "The Persistence of Early Childhood Maturity: International Evidence of Long-Run Age Effects," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 121(4), pages 1437-1472, November.
  6. Fertig, Michael, 2003. "Educational Production, Endogenous Peer Group Formation and Class Composition - Evidence from the PISA 2000 Study," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2003 76, Royal Economic Society.
  7. Marte Rønning & Edvin Leuven & Hessel Oosterbeek, 2008. "Quasi-experimental estimates of the effect of class size on achievement in Norway," Working Paper Series 9308, Department of Economics, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
  8. Takashi Oshio & Wataru Seno, 2007. "The Economics of Education in Japan: A Survey of Empirical Studies and Unresolved Issues," Japanese Economy, M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 34(1), pages 46-81, May.
  9. Christopher Jepsen & Steven Rivkin, 2009. "Class Size Reduction and Student Achievement: The Potential Tradeoff between Teacher Quality and Class Size," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 44(1).
  10. Hægeland, Torbjørn & Raaum, Oddbjørn & Salvanes, Kjell Gunnar, 2007. "Pennies from heaven - Using exogenous tax variation to identify effects of school resources on pupil achievement," Memorandum 18/2007, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
  11. Urquiola, Miguel & Verhoogen, Eric A, 2007. "Class Size and Sorting in Market Equilibrium: Theory and Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 6425, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  12. Gary-Bobo, Robert J. & Mahjoub, Mohamed Badrane, 2006. "Estimation of Class-Size Effects, Using 'Maimonides' Rule': The Case of French Junior High Schools," CEPR Discussion Papers 5754, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  13. Andrea M. Mühlenweg & Patrick A. Puhani, 2010. "The Evolution of the School-Entry Age Effect in a School Tracking System," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 45(2).
  14. Kawaguchi, Daiji, 2011. "Actual age at school entry, educational outcomes, and earnings," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 64-80, June.
  15. Hans Bonesrønning, 2003. "Class Size Effects on Student Achievement in Norway: Patterns and Explanations," Southern Economic Journal, Southern Economic Association, vol. 69(4), pages 952-965, April.
  16. Wo[ss]mann, Ludger & West, Martin, 2006. "Class-size effects in school systems around the world: Evidence from between-grade variation in TIMSS," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 695-736, April.
  17. Joshua D. Angrist & Victor Lavy, 1999. "Using Maimonides' Rule To Estimate The Effect Of Class Size On Scholastic Achievement," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 114(2), pages 533-575, May.
  18. Alan B. Krueger, 1997. "Experimental Estimates of Education Production Functions," NBER Working Papers 6051, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Hojo, Masakazu & Oshio, Takashi, 2010. "What factors determine student performance in East Asia? New evidence from TIMSS 2007," PIE/CIS Discussion Paper 494, Center for Intergenerational Studies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
  20. Eskil Heinesen, 2010. "Estimating Class-size Effects using Within-school Variation in Subject-specific Classes," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 120(545), pages 737-760, 06.
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