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Optimal capital requirements over the business and financial cycles

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  • Malherbe, Frédéric

Abstract

I propose a simple theory of intertwined business and financial cycles, where financial regulation both optimally responds to and influences the cycles. In this model, banks do not internalize the effect of their credit expansion on other banks’ expected bankruptcy costs, which leads to excessive aggregate lending. In response, the regulator sets a capital requirement to trade off expected output against financial stability. The capital requirement that ensures investment efficiency depends on the state of the economy and, because of a general equilibrium effect, its stringency increases with aggregate banking capital. A regulation that fails to take this effect into account would exacerbate economic fluctuations and result in excessive aggregate lending during a boom. It would also allow for an excessive build-up of risk in the financial sector, which implies that, at the peak of a boom, even a small adverse shock could trigger a banking sector collapse, followed by an excessively severe credit crunch.

Suggested Citation

  • Malherbe, Frédéric, 2015. "Optimal capital requirements over the business and financial cycles," CEPR Discussion Papers 10387, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:10387
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Pierluigi Bologna & Anatoli Segura, 2016. "Integrating stress tests within the Basel III capital framework: a macroprudentially coherent approach," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 360, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    2. Elena Afanasyeva & Jochen Güntner, 2014. "Lending Standards, Credit Booms and Monetary Policy," Economics working papers 2014-11, Department of Economics, Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria.
    3. Malherbe, Frederic, 2015. "Optimal capital requirements over the business and financial cycles," Working Paper Series 1830, European Central Bank.
    4. Pierre-Richard Agénor & L. Pereira da Silva, 2016. "Capital Requirements, Risk Taking and Welfare in a Growing Economy," Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 226, Economics, The Univeristy of Manchester.
    5. repec:eee:moneco:v:90:y:2017:i:c:p:113-124 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Olivier De Jonghey & Hans Dewachter & Steven Ongenax, 2016. "Bank capital (requirements) and credit supply: Evidence from pillar 2 decisions," Working Paper Research 303, National Bank of Belgium.
    7. Carvallo, Oscar & Pagliacci, Carolina, 2013. "Macroeconomic Shocks, Housing Market and Banks’ Performance in Venezuela," MPRA Paper 58711, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised Jul 2014.
    8. Bahaj, Saleem & Bridges, Jonathan & Malherbe, Frederic & O’Neill, Cian, 2016. "What determines how banks respond to changes in capital requirements?," Bank of England working papers 593, Bank of England.
    9. Gete, Pedro & Tiernan, Natalie, 2014. "Lending Standards and Countercyclical Capital Requirements under Imperfect Information," MPRA Paper 54486, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. Bahaj, Saleem & Malherbe, Frédéric, 2016. "A positive analysis of bank behaviour under capital requirements," CEPR Discussion Papers 11607, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    11. Pierre-Richard Agénor & L. Pereira da Silva, 2016. "Capital Requirements, Risk Taking and Welfare in a Growing Economy," Centre for Growth and Business Cycle Research Discussion Paper Series 226, Economics, The Univeristy of Manchester.
    12. Gersbach, Hans & Rochet, Jean-Charles, 2017. "Capital regulation and credit fluctuations," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 113-124.
    13. Tetiana Davydiuk, 2017. "Dynamic Bank Capital Requirements," 2017 Meeting Papers 1328, Society for Economic Dynamics.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Basel 3; capital requirement; costly default; counter-cyclical buffers; financial cycles; financial regulation;

    JEL classification:

    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

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