IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/oxf/wpaper/621.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Manipulation of Basel Risk-Weights. Evidence from 2007-10

Author

Listed:
  • Mike Mariathasan
  • Ouarda Merrouche

Abstract

In this paper, we analyse a novel panel data set to compare the relevance of alternative measures of capitalisation for bank failure during the 2007-10 crisis, and to search for evidence of manipulated Basel risk-weights. Compared with the unweighted leverage ratio, we find the risk-weighted asset ratio to be a superior predictor of bank failure when banks operate under the Basel II regime, provided that the risk of a crisis is low. When the risk of a crisis is high, the unweighted leverage ratio is the more reliable predictor. However, when banks do not operate under Basel II rules, both ratios perform comparably, independent of the risk of a crisis. Furthermore, we find a strong decline in the risk-weighted asset ratio leading up to the crisis. Several empirical findings indicate that this decline is driven by the strategic use of internal risk models under the Basel II advanced approaches. Evidence of manipulation is strongerin less competitive banking systems, in banks with low initial levels of Tier 1 capital and in banks that adopted Basel II rules early. We find tangible common equity and Tier 1 ratios to be better predictors of bank distress than broader measures of capital, and identify market-based measures of capitalisation as poor indicators. We find no relationship between the probability of a bank being selected into a public recapitalisation plan and regulatory measures of capital.

Suggested Citation

  • Mike Mariathasan & Ouarda Merrouche, 2012. "The Manipulation of Basel Risk-Weights. Evidence from 2007-10," Economics Series Working Papers 621, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:oxf:wpaper:621
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://ora.ox.ac.uk/objects/uuid:996317fe-0a22-4eed-9833-180ca1b6ed81
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Asli Demirguc-Kunt & Enrica Detragiache & Ouarda Merrouche, 2013. "Bank Capital: Lessons from the Financial Crisis," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 45(6), pages 1147-1164, September.
    2. Berger, Allen N. & Bouwman, Christa H.S., 2013. "How does capital affect bank performance during financial crises?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 109(1), pages 146-176.
    3. James J. Heckman, 1976. "The Common Structure of Statistical Models of Truncation, Sample Selection and Limited Dependent Variables and a Simple Estimator for Such Models," NBER Chapters, in: Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Volume 5, number 4, pages 475-492, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Huizinga, H.P. & Laeven, L., 2009. "Accounting Discretion of Banks During a Financial Crisis," Other publications TiSEM b94d0405-1ced-4aa4-870b-2, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    5. J. Caprio & P. Honohan, 2000. "Restoring Banking Stability: Beyond Supervised Capital Requirements," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 68(1), pages 5-22, March.
    6. Acharya, Viral V. & Schnabl, Philipp & Suarez, Gustavo, 2013. "Securitization without risk transfer," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 107(3), pages 515-536.
    7. Sandra E. Black & Philip E. Strahan, 2002. "Entrepreneurship and Bank Credit Availability," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(6), pages 2807-2833, December.
    8. Frederick T. Furlong & Michael C. Keeley, 1991. "Capital regulation and bank risk-taking: a note (reprinted from Journal of Banking and Finance)," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue Sum, pages 34-39.
    9. Martin Hellwig, 2010. "Capital Regulation after the Crisis: Business as Usual?," ifo DICE Report, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 8(2), pages 40-46, 07.
    10. Ms. Sofiya Avramova & Mrs. Vanessa Le Lesle, 2012. "Revisiting Risk-Weighted Assets," IMF Working Papers 2012/090, International Monetary Fund.
    11. John H. Boyd & Gianni De Nicoló, 2005. "The Theory of Bank Risk Taking and Competition Revisited," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 60(3), pages 1329-1343, June.
    12. Enrico Perotti & Lev Ratnovski & Razvan Vlahu, 2011. "Capital Regulation and Tail Risk," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 7(4), pages 123-163, December.
    13. Calem, Paul & Rob, Rafael, 1999. "The Impact of Capital-Based Regulation on Bank Risk-Taking," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 317-352, October.
    14. Blum, Jürg M., 2008. "Why 'Basel II' may need a leverage ratio restriction," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(8), pages 1699-1707, August.
    15. Huizinga, Harry & Laeven, Luc, 2012. "Bank valuation and accounting discretion during a financial crisis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(3), pages 614-634.
    16. Keeley, Michael C. & Furlong, Frederick T., 1990. "A reexamination of mean-variance analysis of bank capital regulation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 69-84, March.
    17. Goddard, John & Wilson, John O.S., 2009. "Competition in banking: A disequilibrium approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 33(12), pages 2282-2292, December.
    18. Mitchell A. Petersen, 2009. "Estimating Standard Errors in Finance Panel Data Sets: Comparing Approaches," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(1), pages 435-480, January.
    19. Mariathasan, Mike & Merrouche, Ouarda & Werger, Charlotte, 2014. "Bailouts And Moral Hazard: How Implicit Government Guarantees Affect Financial Stability," CEPR Discussion Papers 10311, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    20. Samuel G. Hanson & Anil K. Kashyap & Jeremy C. Stein, 2011. "A Macroprudential Approach to Financial Regulation," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 25(1), pages 3-28, Winter.
    21. Anat Admati & Martin Hellwig, 2013. "The Bankers' New Clothes: What's Wrong with Banking and What to Do about It," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 9929.
    22. Martin Hellwig, 2010. "Capital Regulation after the Crisis: Business as Usual?," ifo DICE Report, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 8(02), pages 40-46, July.
    23. Furlong, Frederick T. & Keeley, Michael C., 1989. "Capital regulation and bank risk-taking: A note," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 883-891, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Lara Cathcart & Lina El-Jahel & Ravel Jabbour, 2017. "Basel II: an engine without brakes," Journal of Banking Regulation, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 18(4), pages 359-374, November.
    2. Gong, Di & Huizinga, Harry & Laeven, Luc, 2015. "Nonconsolidated subsidiaries, bank capitalization and risk taking," CEPR Discussion Papers 10992, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Mohamed Albaity & Mohammadmahdi Toobaee, 2017. "The Risk-sensitivity of Bank Capital Requirements: The Moderating Effects of Capital Regulation and Supervisory Power," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 7(2), pages 94-102.
    4. Conlon, Thomas & Cotter, John & Molyneux, Philip, 2020. "Beyond common equity: The influence of secondary capital on bank insolvency risk," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 47(C).
    5. Barucci, Emilio & Milani, Carlo, 2018. "Do European banks manipulate risk weights?," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 47-57.
    6. Sascha Tobias Wengerek & Benjamin Hippert & André Uhde, 2019. "Risk allocation through securitization - Evidence from non-performing loans," Working Papers Dissertations 58, Paderborn University, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics.
    7. Gong, Di & Huizinga, Harry & Laeven, Luc, 2018. "Nonconsolidated affiliates, bank capitalization, and risk taking," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 109-129.
    8. Bitar, Mohammad & Pukthuanthong, Kuntara & Walker, Thomas, 2018. "The effect of capital ratios on the risk, efficiency and profitability of banks: Evidence from OECD countries," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 227-262.
    9. Cathcart, Lara & El-Jahel, Lina & Jabbour, Ravel, 2015. "Can regulators allow banks to set their own capital ratios?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 112-123.
    10. Tran, Dung Viet & Kabir Hassan, M. & Houston, Reza, 2019. "How does listing status affect bank risk? The effects of crisis, market discipline and regulatory pressure on listed and unlisted BHCs," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 85-103.
    11. Asli Demirguc-Kunt & Enrica Detragiache & Ouarda Merrouche, 2013. "Bank Capital: Lessons from the Financial Crisis," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 45(6), pages 1147-1164, September.
    12. Natalya Martynova & Lev Ratnovski & Razvan Vlahu, 2014. "Franchise value and risk-taking in modern banks," DNB Working Papers 430, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    13. Behn, Markus & Haselmann, Rainer & Vig, Vikrant, 2014. "Risk weights, lending, and financial stability: Limits to model-based capital regulation," VfS Annual Conference 2014 (Hamburg): Evidence-based Economic Policy 100430, Verein für Socialpolitik / German Economic Association.
    14. Huang, Qiubin & de Haan, Jakob & Scholtens, Bert, 2020. "Does bank capitalization matter for bank stock returns?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(C).
    15. Rizwan, Muhammad Suhail, 2021. "Macroprudential regulations and systemic risk: Does the one-size-fits-all approach work?," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 74(C).
    16. Tryggvi Gudmundsson, 2016. "Whose Credit Line is it Anyway: An Update on Banks' Implicit Subsidies," IMF Working Papers 2016/224, International Monetary Fund.
    17. Smith, Jonathan Acosta & Grill, Michael & Lang, Jan Hannes, 2017. "The leverage ratio, risk-taking and bank stability," Working Paper Series 2079, European Central Bank.
    18. Haq, Mamiza & Faff, Robert & Seth, Rama & Mohanty, Sunil, 2014. "Disciplinary tools and bank risk exposure," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 37-64.
    19. Ashraf, Badar Nadeem & Zheng, Changjun & Jiang, Chonghui & Qian, Ningyu, 2020. "Capital regulation, deposit insurance and bank risk: International evidence from normal and crisis periods," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 52(C).
    20. Bitar, Mohammad & Saad, Wadad & Benlemlih, Mohammed, 2016. "Bank risk and performance in the MENA region: The importance of capital requirements," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 398-421.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Banks; Basel risk-weights; Capital; Regulation;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G20 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - General
    • G21 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Banks; Other Depository Institutions; Micro Finance Institutions; Mortgages
    • G28 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services - - - Government Policy and Regulation

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:oxf:wpaper:621. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/sfeixuk.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Anne Pouliquen The email address of this maintainer does not seem to be valid anymore. Please ask Anne Pouliquen to update the entry or send us the correct address (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/sfeixuk.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.