Does macropru leak? Evidence from a UK policy experiment
The regulation of bank capital to improve the resilience of the financial system and, related to this aim, as a means of smoothing the credit cycle are central elements of forthcoming macroprudential regimes internationally. For such regulation to be effective in controlling the aggregate supply of credit: (i) changes in capital requirements need to affect loan supply by regulated banks, and (ii) substitute sources of credit should not fully offset changes in credit supply by affected banks. This paper examines micro evidence—lacking to date—on both questions, using a unique data set. In the United Kingdom, regulators have imposed time-varying, bank-specific minimum capital requirements since Basel I. Over the 1998-2007 period, UK-regulated banks reduced lending in response to tighter capital requirements. But non UK-regulated banks (resident foreign branches) increased lending in response to tighter capital requirements on a relevant reference group of regulated banks. This ‘leakage’ was material although only partial: it offset—by about one third—the initial impulse from the regulatory change. These results suggest that, on balance, changes in capital requirements can have a substantial impact on aggregate credit supply by UK-resident banks. But they also affirm the importance of cross-country co-operation on macroprudential policies.
|Date of creation:||27 Jan 2012|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Bank of England, Threadneedle Street, London, EC2R 8AH|
Phone: +44 (0)171 601 4030
Fax: +44 (0)171 601 5196
Web page: http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- James H. Stock & Motohiro Yogo, 2002. "Testing for Weak Instruments in Linear IV Regression," NBER Technical Working Papers 0284, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- William Francis & Matthew Osborne, 2009. "Bank regulation, capital and credit supply: Measuring the Impact of Prudential Standards," Occasional Papers 36, Financial Services Authority.
- Bagliano, Fabio-Cesare & Favero, Carlo A., 1997.
"Measuring Monetary Policy with VAR Models: An Evaluation,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
1743, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Bagliano, Fabio C. & Favero, Carlo A., 1998. "Measuring monetary policy with VAR models: An evaluation," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(6), pages 1069-1112, June.
- Fabio C. Bagliano & Carlo A. Favero, . "Measuring Monetary Policy with VAR Models: an Evaluation," Working Papers 132, IGIER (Innocenzo Gasparini Institute for Economic Research), Bocconi University.
- Charles Calomiris & Joseph Mason, 2004.
"Credit Card Securitization and Regulatory Arbitrage,"
Journal of Financial Services Research,
Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 26(1), pages 5-27, August.
- Charles W. Calomiris & Joseph R. Mason, 2003. "Credit card securitization and regulatory arbitrage," Working Papers 03-7, Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia.
- Katrin Assenmacher-Wesche & Stefan Gerlach, 2008.
"Financial Structure and the Impact of Monetary Policy on Asset Prices,"
2008-16, Swiss National Bank.
- Gerlach, Stefan & Assenmacher-Wesche, Katrin, 2008. "Financial structure and the impact of monetary policy on asset prices," CFS Working Paper Series 2008/30, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
- Martin Cihak & Klaus Schaeck, 2007. "Banking Competition and Capital Ratios," IMF Working Papers 07/216, International Monetary Fund.
- Ethan Ilzetzki & Enrique G. Mendoza & Carlos A. Végh, 2010.
"How Big (Small?) are Fiscal Multipliers?,"
NBER Working Papers
16479, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ethan Ilzetzki & Enrique G. Mendoza & Carlos A. VÃ©gh Gramont, 2011. "How Big (Small?) are Fiscal Multipliers?," IMF Working Papers 11/52, International Monetary Fund.
- Ethan Ilzetzki & Enrique G. Mendoza & Carlos A. Végh, 2010. "How Big (Small?) are Fiscal Multipliers?," CEP Discussion Papers dp1016, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Alessandro Rebucci, 2003. "On the Heterogeneity Bias of Pooled Estimators in Stationary VAR Specifications," IMF Working Papers 03/73, International Monetary Fund.
- Gambacorta, Leonardo & Mistrulli, Paolo Emilio, 2004. "Does bank capital affect lending behavior?," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 436-457, October.
- R Blundell & Steven Bond, .
"Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data model,"
W14&104., Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
- Blundell, R. & Bond, S., 1995. "Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models," Economics Papers 104, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Richard Blundell & Steve Bond, 1995. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," IFS Working Papers W95/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Filipa Sá & Pascal Towbin & Tomasz Wieladek, 2011.
"Low interest rates and housing booms: the role of capital inflows, monetary policy and financial innovation,"
Globalization and Monetary Policy Institute Working Paper
79, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
- Sa, Filipa & Towbin, Pascal & wieladek, tomasz, 2011. "Low interest rates and housing booms: the role of capital inflows, monetary policy and financial innovation," Bank of England working papers 411, Bank of England.
- Aiyar, Shekhar, 2011. "How did the crisis in international funding markets affect bank lending? Balance sheet evidence from the United Kingdom," Bank of England working papers 424, Bank of England.
- Stock, James H & Wright, Jonathan H & Yogo, Motohiro, 2002. "A Survey of Weak Instruments and Weak Identification in Generalized Method of Moments," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(4), pages 518-29, October.
- Viral V. Acharya & Heitor Almeida & Murillo Campello, 2005.
"Is Cash Negative Debt? A Hedging Perspective on Corporate Financial Policies,"
NBER Working Papers
11391, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Acharya, Viral V. & Almeida, Heitor & Campello, Murillo, 2007. "Is cash negative debt? A hedging perspective on corporate financial policies," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 515-554, October.
- Acharya, Viral V & Almeida, Heitor & Campello, Murillo, 2005. "Is Cash Negative Debt? A Hedging Perspective on Corporate Financial Policies," CEPR Discussion Papers 4886, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Pascal Towbin & Sebastian Weber, 2010. "Limits of Floats: The Role of Foreign Currency Debt and Import Structure," IHEID Working Papers 01-2010, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies, revised Jan 2010.
- Pesaran, M.H. & Smith, R., 1992.
"Estimating Long-Run Relationships From Dynamic Heterogeneous Panels,"
Cambridge Working Papers in Economics
9215, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
- Pesaran, M. Hashem & Smith, Ron, 1995. "Estimating long-run relationships from dynamic heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 79-113, July.
- Frederick T. Furlong, 1992. "Capital regulation and bank lending," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, pages 23-33.
- David Aikman & Andrew G. Haldane & Benjamin D. Nelson, 2015. "Curbing the Credit Cycle," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 125(585), pages 1072-1109, 06.
- Douglas W. Diamond, 1984. "Financial Intermediation and Delegated Monitoring," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 51(3), pages 393-414.
- Tolga Ediz & Ian Michael & William Perraudin, 1998. "The impact of capital requirements on U.K. bank behaviour," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Oct, pages 15-22.
- David Miles & Jing Yang & Gilberto Marcheggiano, 2013.
"Optimal Bank Capital,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 123(567), pages 1-37, 03.
- Joseph G. Haubrich & Paul Wachtel, 1993. "Capital requirements and shifts in commercial bank portfolios," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Q III, pages 2-15.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:boe:boeewp:0445. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Digital Media Team)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.