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How Big (Small?) are Fiscal Multipliers?

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  • Ethan Ilzetzki
  • Enrique G. Mendoza
  • Carlos A. Végh Gramont

Abstract

We contribute to the intense debate on the real effects of fiscal stimuli by showing that the impact of government expenditure shocks depends crucially on key country characteristics, such as the level of development, exchange rate regime, openness to trade, and public indebtedness. Based on a novel quarterly dataset of government expenditure in 44 countries, we find that (i) the output effect of an increase in government consumption is larger in industrial than in developing countries, (ii) the fisscal multiplier is relatively large in economies operating under predetermined exchange rate but zero in economies operating under flexible exchange rates; (iii) fiscal multipliers in open economies are lower than in closed economies and (iv) fiscal multipliers in high-debt countries are also zero.

Suggested Citation

  • Ethan Ilzetzki & Enrique G. Mendoza & Carlos A. Végh Gramont, 2011. "How Big (Small?) are Fiscal Multipliers?," IMF Working Papers 2011/052, International Monetary Fund.
  • Handle: RePEc:imf:imfwpa:2011/052
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Government consumption; Public investment spending; Fiscal multipliers; Exchange rate flexibility; Fiscal stimulus; WP; government; country; government investment;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E2 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment
    • E6 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics
    • H5 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies

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