A Theory of Macroprudential Policies in the Presence of Nominal Rigidities
We provide a unifying foundation for macroprudential policies in financial markets for economies with nominal rigidities in goods and labor markets. Interventions are beneficial because of an aggregate demand externality. Ex post, the distribution of wealth across agents affect aggregate demand and the efficiency of equilibrium through Keynesian channels. However, ex ante, these effects are not privately internalized in the financial decisions agents make. We obtain a formula that characterizes the size and direction for optimal financial market interventions. We provide a number of applications of our general theory, including macroprudential policies guarding against deleveraging and liquidity traps, capital controls due to fixed exchange rates or liquidity traps and fiscal transfers within a currency union. Finally, we show how our results are also relevant for redistributive or social insurance policies, such as income taxes or unemployment benefits, allowing one to incorporate the macroeconomic benefits associated with these policies.
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