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The effects of non-tariff measures on agri-food trade: a review and meta-analysis of empirical evidence

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  • Fabio Gaetano Santeramo
  • Emilia Lamonaca

Abstract

The increasing policy interests and the vivid academic debate on non-tariff measures (NTMs) has stimulated a growing literature on how NTMs affect agrifood trade. The empirical literature provides contrasting and heterogeneous evidence, with some studies supporting the standards as catalysts view, and others favouring the standards as barriers explanation. To the extent that NTMs can influence trade, understanding the prevailing effect, and the motivations behind one effect or the other, is a pressing issue. We review a large body of empirical evidence on the effect of NTMs on agri-food trade and conduct a meta-analysis to disentangle potential determinants of heterogeneity in estimates. Our findings show the role played by the publication process and by study-specific assumptions. Some characteristics of the studies are correlated with positive significant estimates, others covary with negative significant estimates. Overall, we found that the effects of NTMs vary across types of NTMs, proxy for NTMs, and levels of details of studies. Not negligible is the influence of methodological issues and publication process.

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  • Fabio Gaetano Santeramo & Emilia Lamonaca, 2018. "The effects of non-tariff measures on agri-food trade: a review and meta-analysis of empirical evidence," Papers 1811.06323, arXiv.org.
  • Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1811.06323
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    1. Santeramo, Fabio Gaetano & Guerrieri, Valentina & Lamonaca, Emilia, 2018. "On the Evolution of Trade and of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards: The Role of Trade Agreements," MPRA Paper 90535, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • Q17 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agriculture in International Trade
    • Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy

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