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Determinants of World Demand for U.S. Corn Seeds: The Role of Trade Costs

The United States is a large net exporter of corn seeds. Seed trade, including that of corn, has been expanding, but its determinants are not well understood. This paper econometrically investigates the determinants of world demand for U.S. corn seeds with a detailed analysis of trade costs impeding export flows to various markets, including costs associated with distance, tariffs, and sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) regulations. The analysis relies on a gravity-like model based on an explicit specification of derived demand for seed by foreign corn producers, estimated based on data from 48 countries and for the years 1989 to 2004. An SPS count variable is incorporated as a shifter in the unit cost of seeds faced by foreign users. A sample selection framework is used to account for the determination of which trade flows are positive. All trade costs matter and have had a negative impact on U.S. corn seed exports. Tariffs matter most, followed by distance and SPS measures.

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Paper provided by Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University in its series Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications with number 09-wp484.

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Date of creation: Jan 2009
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Handle: RePEc:ias:cpaper:09-wp484
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  1. Rohrbach, D. D. & Minde, I. J. & Howard, J., 2003. "Looking beyond national boundaries: regional harmonization of seed policies, laws and regulations," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 317-333, August.
  2. Chengyan Yue & John C. Beghin, 2009. "Tariff Equivalent and Forgone Trade Effects of Prohibitive Technical Barriers to Trade," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 91(4), pages 930-941.
  3. Linda Calvin & Barry Krissoff & William Foster, 2008. "Measuring the Costs and Trade Effects of Phytosanitary Protocols: A U.S.–Japanese Apple Example," Review of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 30(1), pages 120-135.
  4. Will Martin & Cong S. Pham, 2008. "Estimating the Gravity Model When Zero Trade Flows are Frequent," Economics Series 2008_03, Deakin University, Faculty of Business and Law, School of Accounting, Economics and Finance.
  5. David Hummels & Peter J. Klenow, 2002. "The Variety and Quality of a Nation's Trade," NBER Working Papers 8712, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge & Caswell, Margriet, 2006. "The First Decade of Genetically Engineered Crops in the USA," Economic Information Bulletin 33897, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
  7. Beghin, John C. & Bureau, Jean-Christophe, 2001. "Quantitative Policy Analysis of Sanitary, Phytosanitary and Technical Barriers to Trade," Staff General Research Papers 5119, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  8. Elhanan Helpman & Marc Melitz & Yona Rubinstein, 2007. "Estimating Trade Flows: Trading Partners and Trading Volumes," NBER Working Papers 12927, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Yue, Chengyan & Beghin, John C. & Jensen, Helen H., 2005. "Tariff Equivalent of Technical Barriers to Trade with Imperfect Substitution and Trade Costs," 2005 International Congress, August 23-27, 2005, Copenhagen, Denmark 24765, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  10. Joao Santos Silva & Silvana Tenreyro, 2005. "The Log of Gravity," CEP Discussion Papers dp0701, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  11. Felbermayr, Gabriel & Kohler, Wilhelm K., 2006. "Exploring the intensive and extensive margins of world trade," Munich Reprints in Economics 20610, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
  12. Rodolfo Hoffmann & Ana Lucia Kassouf, 2005. "Deriving conditional and unconditional marginal effects in log earnings equations estimated by Heckman's procedure," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(11), pages 1303-1311.
  13. John C. Beghin, 2006. "Nontariff Barriers," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 06-wp438, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
  14. Salvatici, Luca & Cipollina, Maria, 2006. "Measuring Protection: Mission Impossible?," Working Papers 18876, TRADEAG - Agricultural Trade Agreements.
  15. Fernandez-Cornejo, Jorge, 2004. "The Seed Industry In U.S. Agriculture: An Exploration Of Data And Information On Crop Seed Markets, Regulation, Industry Structure, And Research And Development," Agricultural Information Bulletins 33671, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
  16. Yue, Chengyan & Beghin, John C., 2007. "The Tariff Equivalent and Forgone Trade Effects of Prohibitive Technical Barriers to Trade," 2007 Annual Meeting, July 29-August 1, 2007, Portland, Oregon TN 10000, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
  17. Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M. Stern, 1997. "Measurement of Non-Tariff Barriers," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 179, OECD Publishing.
  18. Everett B. Peterson & David Orden, 2008. "Avocado Pests and Avocado Trade," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 90(2), pages 321-335.
  19. Anne-Célia Disdier & Keith Head, 2004. "The Puzzling Persistence of the Distance Effect on Bilateral Trade," Development Working Papers 186, Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano, University of Milano.
  20. repec:lmu:muenar:20646 is not listed on IDEAS
  21. Anne-Célia Disdier & Lionel Fontagné & Mondher Mimouni, 2008. "The Impact of Regulations on Agricultural Trade: Evidence from the SPS and TBT Agreements," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 90(2), pages 336-350.
  22. Martijn Burger & Frank van Oort & Gert-Jan Linders, 2009. "On the Specification of the Gravity Model of Trade: Zeros, Excess Zeros and Zero-inflated Estimation," Spatial Economic Analysis, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(2), pages 167-190.
  23. Ghazalian, Pascal & Tamini, Lota & Larue, Bruno & Gervais, Jean-Philippe, 2007. "A Gravity approach to evaluate the significance of trade liberalization in vertically-related goods in the presence of non-tariff barriers," MPRA Paper 2744, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  24. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
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