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Nontariff Barriers


  • John C. Beghin


Nontariff barriers (NTBs) refer to the wide range of policy interventions other than border tariffs that affect trade of goods, services, and factors of production. Most taxonomies of NTBs include market-specific trade and domestic policies affecting trade in that market. Extended taxonomies include macro-economic policies affecting trade. NTBs have gained importance as tariff levels have been reduced worldwide. Common measures of NTBs include tariff-equivalents of the NTB policy or policies and count and frequency measures of NTBs. These NTB measures are subsequently used in various trade models, including gravity equations, to assess trade and/or welfare effects of the measured NTBs.

Suggested Citation

  • John C. Beghin, 2006. "Nontariff Barriers," Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) Publications 06-wp438, Center for Agricultural and Rural Development (CARD) at Iowa State University.
  • Handle: RePEc:ias:cpaper:06-wp438

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hiau LooiKee & Alessandro Nicita & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2009. "Estimating Trade Restrictiveness Indices," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(534), pages 172-199, January.
    2. John C. Beghin & Jean-Christophe Bureau, 2017. "Quantitative Policy Analysis Of Sanitary, Phytosanitary And Technical Barriers To Trade," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 3, pages 39-62 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    3. Fischer, Ronald & Serra, Pablo, 2000. "Standards and protection," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 377-400, December.
    4. Anne-Célia Disdier & Lionel Fontagné & Mondher Mimouni, 2007. "The Impact of Regulations on Agricultural Trade: Evidence from SPS and TBT Agreements," Working Papers 2007-04, CEPII research center.
    5. Vousden,Neil, 1990. "The Economics of Trade Protection," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521346696, March.
    6. Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M. Stern, 1997. "Measurement of Non-Tariff Barriers," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 179, OECD Publishing.
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    Cited by:

    1. Sampath Jayasinghe & John C. Beghin & Giancarlo Moschini, 2017. "Determinants Of World Demand For U.S. Corn Seeds: The Role Of Trade Costs," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 17, pages 309-320 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    2. John C. Beghin & Miet Maertens & Johan Swinnen, 2017. "Nontariff Measures and Standards in Trade and Global Value Chains," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 2, pages 13-38 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    3. Gabriel Felbermayr & Benjamin Jung, 2011. "Sorting It Out: Technical Barriers to Trade and Industry Productivity," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 22(1), pages 93-117, February.
    4. Andrea Dal Bianco & Vasco Ladislao Boatto & Francesco Caracciolo & Fabio Gaetano Santeramo, 2016. "Tariffs and non-tariff frictions in the world wine trade," European Review of Agricultural Economics, Foundation for the European Review of Agricultural Economics, vol. 43(1), pages 31-57.
    5. Barbara Dluhosch & Daniel Horgos, 2013. "Trading Up the Happiness Ladder," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 113(3), pages 973-990, September.
    6. Mkuna, Eliaza, 2014. "East Africa Community (EAC) Non Tariff Barriers and their Effects on Tanzanian Small and Medium Agro Enterprises Cross Border Trade," Research Theses 243444, Collaborative Masters Program in Agricultural and Applied Economics.
    7. Matthias Bauer & Andreas Freytag, 2013. "Cumulative Benefits from Trade Liberalization for the South African Economy," Jena Economic Research Papers 2013-036, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.
    8. Marco Fugazza, 2013. "The Economics Behind Non-Tariff Measures: Theoretical Insights And Empirical Evidence," UNCTAD Blue Series Papers 57, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development.
    9. William F. Lincoln & Andrew H. McCallum, 2011. "Entry Costs and Increasing Trade," Working Papers 11-38r, Center for Economic Studies, U.S. Census Bureau.
    10. Fugazza, Marco & Maur, Jean-Christophe, 2008. "Non-tariff barriers in CGE models: How useful for policy?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 475-490.
    11. Hejazi, Mina & Grant, Jason, 2013. "Do Trade Costs Affect the Extensive Margin of Trade? Lessons from U.S. Fresh Fruits and Vegetables Imports," 2013 Annual Meeting, August 4-6, 2013, Washington, D.C. 150602, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    12. Frank van Tongeren & John Beghin & Stéphane Marette, 2009. "A Cost-Benefit Framework for the Assessment of Non-Tariff Measures in Agro-Food Trade," OECD Food, Agriculture and Fisheries Papers 21, OECD Publishing.
    13. Sbarai, Nathalia & Miranda, Silvia Helena Galvao de, 2012. "Estimation of Tariff Equivalent for NTM on Brazilian beef exports to the European Union," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126496, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    14. Belloc, Marianna, 2015. "Information for sale in the European Union," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 120(C), pages 130-144.
    15. Huan-Niemi, Ellen & Niemi, Janne & Niemi, Jyrki S., 2010. "Global Food Production under Alternative Scenarios," International Food and Agribusiness Management Review, International Food and Agribusiness Management Association (IFAMA), vol. 13(4).
    16. Liu, Lan & Yue, Chengyan, 2009. "Non-tariff Barriers to Trade Caused by SPS Measures and Customs Procedures with Product Quality Changes," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 34(1), April.

    More about this item


    externality and trade; nontariff barrier; NTB; protectionism; sanitary and phytosanitary; SPS; standards; TBT; technical barrier to trade.;

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