Nontariff barriers (NTBs) refer to the wide range of policy interventions other than border tariffs that affect trade of goods, services, and factors of production. Most taxonomies of NTBs include market-specific trade and domestic policies affecting trade in that market. Extended taxonomies include macro-economic policies affecting trade. NTBs have gained importance as tariff levels have been reduced worldwide. Common measures of NTBs include tariff-equivalents of the NTB policy or policies and count and frequency measures of NTBs. These NTB measures are subsequently used in various trade models, including gravity equations, to assess trade and/or welfare effects of the measured NTBs.
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- Vousden,Neil, 1990. "The Economics of Trade Protection," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521346696, December.
- Kee, Hiau Looi & Nicita, Alessandro & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2006.
"Estimating Trade Restrictiveness Indices,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
5576, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Fischer, Ronald & Serra, Pablo, 2000.
"Standards and protection,"
Journal of International Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 377-400, December.
- Anne-Célia Disdier & Lionel Fontagné & Mondher Mimouni, 2008.
"The Impact of Regulations on Agricultural Trade: Evidence from SPS and TBT Agreements,"
Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers)
- Anne-Célia Disdier & Lionel Fontagné & Mondher Mimouni, 2007. "The Impact of Regulations on Agricultural Trade: Evidence from SPS and TBT Agreements," Working Papers 2007-04, CEPII research center.
- Disdier, Anne-Celia & Fontagne, Lionel & Mimouni, Mondher, 2007. "The Impact of Regulations on Agricultural Trade: Evidence from SPS and TBT Agreements," Working Papers 18869, TRADEAG - Agricultural Trade Agreements.
- John C. Beghin & Jean-Christophe Bureau, 2001.
"Quantitative Policy Analysis of Sanitary, Phytosanitary and Technical Barriers to Trade,"
CEPII research center, issue 87, pages 107-130.
- Beghin, John C. & Bureau, Jean-Christophe, 2001. "Quantitative Policy Analysis of Sanitary, Phytosanitary and Technical Barriers to Trade," Staff General Research Papers Archive 5119, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Beghin, John C. & Bureau, Jean-Christophe, 2005. "Quantitative Policy Analysis of Sanitary, Phytosanitary and Technical Barriers to Trade," Staff General Research Papers Archive 12740, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M. Stern, 1997. "Measurement of Non-Tariff Barriers," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 179, OECD Publishing.
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