Nontariff barriers (NTBs) refer to the wide range of policy interventions other than border tariffs that affect trade of goods, services, and factors of production. Most taxonomies of NTBs include market-specific trade and domestic policies affecting trade in that market. Extended taxonomies include macro-economic policies affecting trade. NTBs have gained importance as tariff levels have been reduced worldwide. Common measures of NTBs include tariff-equivalents of the NTB policy or policies and count and frequency measures of NTBs. These NTB measures are subsequently used in various trade models, including gravity equations, to assess trade and/or welfare effects of the measured NTBs.
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- Hiau LooiKee & Alessandro Nicita & Marcelo Olarreaga, 2009.
"Estimating Trade Restrictiveness Indices,"
Royal Economic Society, vol. 119(534), pages 172-199, 01.
- Kee, Hiau Looi & Nicita, Alessandro & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2006. "Estimating Trade Restrictiveness Indices," CEPR Discussion Papers 5576, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Kee, Hiau Looi & Nicita, Alessandro & Olarreaga, Marcelo, 2006. "Estimating trade restrictiveness indices," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3840, The World Bank.
- John C. Beghin & Jean-Christophe Bureau, 2001. "Quantitative Policy Analysis of Sanitary, Phytosanitary and Technical Barriers to Trade," Economie Internationale, CEPII research center, issue 87, pages 107-130.
- Beghin, John C. & Bureau, Jean-Christophe, 2001. "Quantitative Policy Analysis of Sanitary, Phytosanitary and Technical Barriers to Trade," Staff General Research Papers Archive 5119, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Beghin, John C. & Bureau, Jean-Christophe, 2005. "Quantitative Policy Analysis of Sanitary, Phytosanitary and Technical Barriers to Trade," Staff General Research Papers Archive 12740, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Fischer, Ronald & Serra, Pablo, 2000. "Standards and protection," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 377-400, December.
- Ronald Fischer & Pablo Serra, 1998. "Standards and Protection," Documentos de Trabajo 45, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
- Vousden,Neil, 1990. "The Economics of Trade Protection," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521346696, January.
- Alan V. Deardorff & Robert M. Stern, 1997. "Measurement of Non-Tariff Barriers," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 179, OECD Publishing. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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