IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Rules of Origin and Non-Tariff Barriers in Agricultural Trade: Perspectives from Bangladesh and Cambodia


  • Uttam Kumar Deb

    () (Centre for Policy Dialogue)


Many developed and developing countries have been offering special schemes to benefit least developed countries (LDCs) from trade through increased market access. However, effective utilization of market access opportunities by the LDCs may be constrained by the rules of origin (RoO) criteria and non-tariff measures (NTMs) applied by the preference-giving countries. This report deals with RoO applied and non-tariff barriers (NTBs) imposed by developed and developing countries for importing agricultural products from LDCs.

Suggested Citation

  • Uttam Kumar Deb, 2006. "Rules of Origin and Non-Tariff Barriers in Agricultural Trade: Perspectives from Bangladesh and Cambodia," Working Papers 1206, Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT), an initiative of UNESCAP and IDRC, Canada..
  • Handle: RePEc:esc:wpaper:1206

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. James E. Anderson & J. Peter Neary, 1996. "A New Approach to Evaluating Trade Policy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 63(1), pages 107-125.
    2. James, Sallie & Anderson, Kym, 1998. "On the need for more economic assessment of quarantine/SPS policies," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 42(4), December.
    3. Arrow, Kenneth J. & Cropper, Maureen L. & Eads, George C. & Hahn, Robert W. & Lave, Lester B. & Noll, Roger G. & Portney, Paul R. & Russell, Milson & Schmalensee, Richard & Smith, V. Kerry & Stavins, , 1997. "Is there a role for benefit-cost analysis in environmental, health, and safety regulation?," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 2(02), pages 195-221, May.
    4. Anderson, James E & Neary, J Peter, 1994. "Measuring the Restrictiveness of Trade Policy," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 8(2), pages 151-169, May.
    5. Crampes, Claude & Hollander, Abraham, 1995. "Duopoly and quality standards," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(1), pages 71-82, January.
    6. Paul Brenton & Miriam Manchin, 2003. "Making EU Trade Agreements Work: The Role of Rules of Origin," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(5), pages 755-769, May.
    7. Chengyan Yue & John Beghin & Helen H. Jensen, 2017. "Tariff Equivalent Of Technical Barriers To Trade With Imperfect Substitution And Trade Costs," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Nontariff Measures and International Trade, chapter 9, pages 151-164 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    8. Patricia Augier & Michael Gasiorek & Charles Lai Tong, 2005. "The impact of rules of origin on trade flows," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 20(43), pages 567-624, July.
    9. Jiandong Ju & Kala Krishna, "undated". "Market Access and Welfare Effects of Free Trade Areas without Rules of Origin," EPRU Working Paper Series 96-03, Economic Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
    10. Anderson, James E & Neary, J Peter, 1994. "The Trade Restrictiveness of the Multi-fibre Arrangement," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 8(2), pages 171-189, May.
    11. Crampes, Claude & Hollander, Abraham, 1995. "How Many Karats Is Gold: Welfare Effects of Easing a Denomination Standard," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 7(2), pages 131-143, March.
    12. Kyoji Fukao & Goushi Kataoka & Arata Kuno, 2003. "How to Measure Non-tariff Barriers? A Critical Examination of the Price-Differential Approach," Hi-Stat Discussion Paper Series d03-08, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    13. Michalopoulos,Constantine, 1999. "Trade policy and market access issues for developing countries : implications for the Millennium Round," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2214, The World Bank.
    14. Boom, Anette, 1995. "Asymmetric International Minimum Quality Standards and Vertical Differentiation," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 43(1), pages 101-119, March.
    15. Harrigan, James & Vanjani, Rohit, 2003. "Is Japan's trade (still) different?," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 507-519, December.
    16. Yoko Sazanami & Shujiro Urata & Hiroki Kawai, 1995. "Measuring the Costs of Protection in Japan," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 32, January.
    17. Krueger, Anne O & Schiff, Maurice & Valdes, Alberto, 1988. "Agricultural Incentives in Developing Countries: Measuring the Effect of Sectoral and Economywide Policies," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 2(3), pages 255-271, September.
    18. Howard J. Wall, 1999. "Using the gravity model to estimate the costs of protection," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Jan, pages 33-40.
    19. Brenton, Paul, 2003. "Integrating the least developed countries into the world trading system : the current impact of EU preferences under everything but arms," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3018, The World Bank.
    20. Bureau, Jean-Christophe & Jean, S Bastien & Matthews, Alan, 2006. "The consequences of agricultural trade liberalization for developing countries: distinguishing between genuine benefits and false hopes," World Trade Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 5(02), pages 225-249, July.
    21. Oecd, 2005. "Analysis of Non-Tariff Barriers of Concern to Developing Countries," OECD Trade Policy Papers 16, OECD Publishing.
    22. Philip L. Paarlberg & John G. Lee, 1998. "Import Restrictions in the Presence of a Health Risk: An Illustration Using FMD," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 80(1), pages 175-183.
    23. Rupa Duttagupta & Arvind Panagariya, 2007. "Free Trade Areas And Rules Of Origin: Economics And Politics," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(2), pages 169-190, July.
    24. Vousden,Neil, 1990. "The Economics of Trade Protection," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521346696, March.
    25. Peter Czaga, 2004. "Analysis of Non-Tariff Measures: The Case of Prohibitions and Quotas," OECD Trade Policy Papers 6, OECD Publishing.
    26. repec:rus:hseeco:123712 is not listed on IDEAS
    27. Calvin, Linda & Krissoff, Barry, 1998. "Technical Barriers To Trade: A Case Study Of Phytosanitary Barriers And U.S. - Japanese Apple Trade," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 23(02), December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

      More about this item


      Rules of Origin; Non-Tariff Measures;

      JEL classification:

      • F1 - International Economics - - Trade

      NEP fields

      This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


      Access and download statistics


      All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:esc:wpaper:1206. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

      For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Yann Duval). General contact details of provider: .

      If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

      If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

      If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

      Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

      IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.