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Market Access and Welfare Effects of Free Trade Areas without Rules of Origin

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  • Jiandong Ju
  • Kala Krishna

Abstract

The market access and welfare effects of Free Trade Areas (FTAs) without Rules of Origin (ROOs) are studied. We consider both the final and intermediate goods markets and their interlinkage. The FTA weakly reduces all tariffs and prices within the FTA. This raises quantity demanded and reduces quantity supplied for both the final and intermediate goods, thereby raising imports. This is the classic trade creation effect and is welfare improving. We identify two additional effects which work in the opposite direction and identify conditions under which these welfare reducing, import reducing effects dominate.

Suggested Citation

  • Jiandong Ju & Kala Krishna, 1996. "Market Access and Welfare Effects of Free Trade Areas without Rules of Origin," NBER Working Papers 5480, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:5480 Note: ITI
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Kala Krishna & Anne Krueger, 1995. "Implementing Free Trade Areas: Rules of Origin and Hidden Protection," NBER Working Papers 4983, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Lopez, Ramon E. & Rodrik, Dani, 1990. "Trade restrictions with imported intermediate inputs : When does the trade balance improve?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, pages 329-338.
    3. Krueger, Anne O., 1997. "Free trade agreements versus customs unions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, pages 169-187.
    4. Lopez, Ramon & Panagariya, Arvind, 1992. "On the Theory of Piecemeal Tariff Reform: The Case of Pure Imported Intermediate Inputs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 615-625, June.
    5. Lopez, Ramon E. & Rodrik, Dani, 1990. "Trade restrictions with imported intermediate inputs : When does the trade balance improve?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, pages 329-338.
    6. Carsten Kowalczyk, 1990. "Welfare and Customs Unions," NBER Working Papers 3476, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Srinivasan, T. N., 1997. "The common external tariff of a customs union: Alternative approaches," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 9(4), pages 447-465, December.
    2. Jiandong Ju & Kala Krishna, 2005. "Firm behaviour and market access in a Free Trade Area with rules of origin," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 38(1), pages 290-308, February.
    3. Patricia Augier & Michael Gasiorek & Charles Lai-Tong, 2007. "Multilateralising Regionalism: Relaxing the Rules of Origin Or Can Those Pecs Be Flexed?," CARIS Working Papers 03, Centre for the Analysis of Regional Integration at Sussex, University of Sussex.
    4. Ju, Jiandong & Krishna, Kala, 2000. "Necessary conditions for welfare improving reforms," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 67(2), pages 173-178, May.
    5. Jiandong Ju & Kala Krishna, 1997. "Market Access and Welfare Effects of Piecemeal Policy Reform," NBER Working Papers 6294, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Patricia Augier & Michael Gasiorek & Charles Lai Tong, 2005. "The impact of rules of origin on trade flows," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 20(43), pages 567-624, July.
    7. Ju, Jiandong & Krishna, Kala, 2000. "Welfare and market access effects of piecemeal tariff reform," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, pages 305-316.
    8. Adhikari, Deergha Raj, 2009. "Welfare impact of a bilateral trade agreement," Economia Internazionale / International Economics, Camera di Commercio Industria Artigianato Agricoltura di Genova, vol. 62(2), pages 135-143.
    9. Uttam Kumar Deb, 2006. "Rules of Origin and Non-Tariff Barriers in Agricultural Trade: Perspectives from Bangladesh and Cambodia," Working Papers 1206, Asia-Pacific Research and Training Network on Trade (ARTNeT), an initiative of UNESCAP and IDRC, Canada..

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F19 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Other

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