IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/wpa/wuwpit/0404001.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Impact of Rules of Origin On Trade Flows

Author

Listed:
  • AUGIER Patricia

    (Université de la Méditerranée CEFI)

  • GAZIOREK Michael

    (Sussex University & GREQAM)

  • LAITONG Charles

    (Université de la Méditerranée CEFI)

Abstract

Within any preferential trade agreement (PTA) origin rules exist in order to prevent third countries from taking advantage of the PTA concessions. The rules thus are there to preserve the existing external protection of countries within the PTA. However, depending on their formulation, they can also increase that level of external protection, resulting in trade suppression and trade diversion. This paper provides the first serious empirical examination of the possible impact of rules of origin on patterns of trade in the European context. The methodology employed is that of an augmented gravity model where we focus on the impact within the Pan-european system of cumulation. The results suggest that rules of origin do indeed restrict trade, that the cumulation of such rules could increase trade in the order of 50%, and that the impact is greater on intermediate than manufacturing trade.

Suggested Citation

  • AUGIER Patricia & GAZIOREK Michael & LAITONG Charles, 2004. "The Impact of Rules of Origin On Trade Flows," International Trade 0404001, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpit:0404001
    Note: Type of Document - pdf; pages: 27
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://econwpa.ub.uni-muenchen.de/econ-wp/it/papers/0404/0404001.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Deardorff, Alan V, 2001. "International Provision of Trade Services, Trade, and Fragmentation," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(2), pages 233-248, May.
    2. Anne O. Krueger, 1993. "Free Trade Agreements as Protectionist Devices: Rules of Origin," NBER Working Papers 4352, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Cockburn, John & Decaluwe, Bernard & Dostie, Benoît, 1998. "Les leçons du mariage entre les modèles d'équilibre général calculable et la nouvelle théorie du commerce international: application à la Tunisie," Cahiers de recherche 9804, Université Laval - Département d'économique.
    4. Paul Brenton & Miriam Manchin, 2014. "Making EU Trade Agreements Work: The Role of Rules of Origin," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: INTERNATIONAL TRADE, DISTRIBUTION AND DEVELOPMENT Empirical Studies of Trade Policies, chapter 14, pages 299-313, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    5. Alan V. Deardorff, 2011. "Determinants of Bilateral Trade: Does Gravity Work in a Neoclassical World?," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: Robert M Stern (ed.), Comparative Advantage, Growth, And The Gains From Trade And Globalization A Festschrift in Honor of Alan V Deardorff, chapter 24, pages 267-293, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    6. Sapir, Andre, 1998. "The political economy of EC regionalism," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(3-5), pages 717-732, May.
    7. Ronald W. Jones & Sugata Marjit, 2018. "The Role of International Fragmentation in the Development Process," World Scientific Book Chapters, in: International Trade Theory and Competitive Models Features, Values, and Criticisms, chapter 15, pages 255-261, World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
    8. Rod Falvey & Geoff Reed, 1998. "Economic effects of rules of origin," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 134(2), pages 209-229, June.
    9. Rod Falvey & Geoff Reed, 2002. "Rules of Origin as Commercial Policy Instruments," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 43(2), pages 393-408, May.
    10. P. J. Lloyd, 1993. "A Tariff Substitute for Rules of Origin in Free Trade Areas," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(6), pages 699-712, November.
    11. Jiandong Ju & Kala Krishna, 2005. "Firm behaviour and market access in a Free Trade Area with rules of origin," Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue canadienne d'économique, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 38(1), pages 290-308, February.
    12. Panagariya, Arvind & Krishna, Pravin, 2002. "On necessarily welfare-enhancing free trade areas," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 353-367, August.
    13. Jiandong Ju & Kala Krishna, "undated". "Market Access and Welfare Effects of Free Trade Areas without Rules of Origin," EPRU Working Paper Series 96-03, Economic Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
    14. Bergstrand, Jeffrey H, 1985. "The Gravity Equation in International Trade: Some Microeconomic Foundations and Empirical Evidence," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(3), pages 474-481, August.
    15. Laszlo Matyas, 1997. "Proper Econometric Specification of the Gravity Model," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(3), pages 363-368, May.
    16. Jeffrey A. Frankel, 1997. "Regional Trading Blocs in the World Economic System," Peterson Institute Press: All Books, Peterson Institute for International Economics, number 72, July.
    17. D Evans, 2000. "Options for Regional Integration in Southern Africa," South African Journal of Economics, Economic Society of South Africa, vol. 68(4), pages 293-304, December.
    18. Kala Krishna & Anne Krueger, 1995. "Implementing Free Trade Areas: Rules of Origin and Hidden Protection," NBER Working Papers 4983, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    19. Mr. Arvind Panagariya & Rupa Duttagupta, 2003. "Free Trade Areas and Rules of Origin: Economics and Politics," IMF Working Papers 2003/229, International Monetary Fund.
    20. Hummels, David & Ishii, Jun & Yi, Kei-Mu, 2001. "The nature and growth of vertical specialization in world trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 75-96, June.
    21. Kala Krishna & Motoshige Itoh, 1988. "Content Protection and Oligopolistic Interactions," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 55(1), pages 107-125.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Patricia Augier & Michael Gasiorek & Charles Lai-Tong, 2007. "Multilateralising Regionalism: Relaxing the Rules of Origin Or Can Those Pecs Be Flexed?," CARIS Working Papers 03, Centre for the Analysis of Regional Integration at Sussex, University of Sussex.
    2. Kala Krishna, 2005. "Understanding Rules of Origin," NBER Working Papers 11150, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    3. Chang, Yang-Ming & Xiao, Renfeng, 2015. "Preferential trade agreements between asymmetric countries: Free trade areas (with rules of origin) vs. customs unions," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 28-43.
    4. Rupa Duttagupta & Arvind Panagariya, 2007. "Free Trade Areas And Rules Of Origin: Economics And Politics," Economics and Politics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(2), pages 169-190, July.
    5. Rod Falvey & Geoff Reed, 1998. "Economic effects of rules of origin," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 134(2), pages 209-229, June.
    6. Soloaga, Isidro & Alan Wintersb, L., 2001. "Regionalism in the nineties: what effect on trade?," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 1-29, March.
    7. Olivier Cadot & Antoni Estevadeordal & Akiko Suwa-Eisenmann, 2004. "Rules of origin as export subsidies," Research Unit Working Papers 0405, Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquee, INRA.
    8. Balogun, Emmanuel Dele, 2010. "Rules of Origin in the Africa-EU Strategic Partnership Agreement and Nigeria’s international trade," MPRA Paper 23921, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Aaditya Mattoo & Devesh Roy & Arvind Subramanian, 2003. "The Africa Growth and Opportunity Act and its Rules of Origin: Generosity Undermined?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(6), pages 829-851, June.
    10. Fabien Candau & Sébastien Jean, 2005. "What Are EU Trade Preferences Worth for Sub-Saharan Africa and Other Developing Countries?," Working Papers 2005-19, CEPII research center.
    11. Francois, Joseph, 2005. "Preferential Trade Arrangements and the Pattern of Production and Trade when Inputs are Differentiated," CEPR Discussion Papers 5144, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    12. Baldwin, Richard & Taglioni, Daria, 2006. "Gravity for Dummies and Dummies for Gravity Equations," CEPR Discussion Papers 5850, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    13. Celik, Levent & Karabay, Bilgehan & McLaren, John, 2020. "Fast-track authority: A hold-up interpretation," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 127(C).
    14. Antoni Estevadeordal & Brian Frantz & Alan M. Taylor, 2003. "The Rise and Fall of World Trade, 1870–1939," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(2), pages 359-407.
    15. Arvind Panagariya, 1999. "The Regionalism Debate: An Overview," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(4), pages 455-476, June.
    16. Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada & Felicitas, Nowak-Lehmann D. & Horsewood, Nicholas, 2009. "Are regional trading agreements beneficial?: Static and dynamic panel gravity models," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 46-65, March.
    17. Jinji, Naoto & Mizoguchi, Yoshihiro, 2016. "Rules of origin and technology spillovers from foreign direct investment under international duopoly," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 47-60.
    18. Manchin, Miriam, 2005. "Preference utilization and tariff reduction in European Union imports from African, Caribbean, and Pacific countries," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3688, The World Bank.
    19. MUKUNOKI Hiroshi & OKOSHI Hirofumi, 2019. "Tariff Elimination versus Tax Avoidance: Free Trade Agreements and Transfer Pricing," Discussion papers 19099, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    20. Estevadeordal, Antoni, 2011. "The Impact of Free Trade Agreements on the Pattern of Trade," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 4525, Inter-American Development Bank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    international trade; rules of origin; gravity model;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F - International Economics

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpit:0404001. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://econwpa.ub.uni-muenchen.de .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: EconWPA (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://econwpa.ub.uni-muenchen.de .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.