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Rules of origin and uncertain cost of compliance

  • Mizuno, Tomomichi
  • Takauchi, Kazuhiro

To consider the role of uncertain production cost resulting from complying with rules of origin (ROO), we formulate a Cournot oligopoly model of a free trade area (FTA). If exporters do not comply with ROO, they must pay an external tariff, and if they comply, they enjoy zero tariff but suffer an uncertain production cost. Because compliers must source a certain ratio of the inputs from within the area, they face input-price fluctuations in that area; this yields an uncertain production cost for compliers. This uncertain cost provides a benefit to compliers owing to its variance. Therefore, for an intermediate external tariff, strategic substitution emerges in exporters' choice. We show that the coexistence of compliers and non-compliers is seen among symmetric exporters. We also discuss the endogenous rate of ROO-compliers in the coexisting equilibrium of compliers and non-compliers. We show that if the variance of the uncertain production cost is small, the rate of ROO-compliers in the coexisting equilibrium increases with the number of total exporters inside the FTA.

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Paper provided by University Library of Munich, Germany in its series MPRA Paper with number 44431.

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Date of creation: 17 Feb 2013
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Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:44431
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  1. Anthony Creane & Kaz Miyagiwa, 2007. "Information and Disclosure in Strategic Trade Policy," ISER Discussion Paper 0705, Institute of Social and Economic Research, Osaka University.
  2. Yang-Ming Chang & Renfeng Xiao, 2013. "Free trade areas, the limit of Rules of Origin, and optimal tariff reductions under international oligopoly: A welfare analysis," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(5), pages 694-728, August.
  3. Svetlana Demidova & Kala Krishna, 2007. "Firm Heterogeneity and Firm Behavior with Conditional Policies," NBER Working Papers 12950, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  4. Arvind Panagariya & Rupa Duttagupta, 2003. "Free Trade Areas and Rules of Origin; Economics and Politics," IMF Working Papers 03/229, International Monetary Fund.
  5. Rod Falvey & Geoff Reed,, . "Economic Effects of Rules of Origin," Discussion Papers 97/21, University of Nottingham, CREDIT.
  6. Jota Ishikawa & Hiroshi Mukunoki & Yoshihiro Mizoguchi, 2007. "Economic Integration And Rules Of Origin Under International Oligopoly," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 48(1), pages 185-210, 02.
  7. Jose Anson & Olivier Cadot & Antoni Estevadeordal & Jaime de Melo & Akiko Suwa-Eisenmann & Bolorma Tumurchudur, 2004. "Rules of origin in north-south preferential trading arrangements with an application to NAFTA," Research Unit Working Papers 0406, Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquee, INRA.
  8. Rod Falvey & Geoff Reed, . "Rules of Origin as Commercial Policy Instruments," EPRU Working Paper Series 97-20, Economic Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
  9. Juan RosellOn, 2001. "The economics of rules of origin," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(4), pages 397-425.
  10. Higashida, Keisaku & Jinji, Naoto, 2006. "Strategic use of recycled content standards under international duopoly," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 242-257, March.
  11. Creane, Anthony & Miyagiwa, Kaz, 2009. "Forgoing invention to deter entry," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 632-638, September.
  12. Hayakawa, Kazunobu & Hiratsuka, Daisuke & Shiino, Kohei & Sukegawa, Seiya, 2009. "Who Uses FTAs?," IDE Discussion Papers 207, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
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