Market Access and Welfare Effects of Free Trade Areas without Rules of Origin
The market access and welfare effects of Free Trade Areas (FTAs) without Rules of Origin (ROOs) are studied. We consider the final and intermediate goods markets and their interlinkage. The FTA weakly reduces all tariffs and prices within the FTA. This raises quantity demanded and reduces quantity supplied for both the final and intermediate goods, thereby raising imports. This is the classic trade creation effect and is welfare improving. We identify two additional effects which work in the opposite direction and identify conditions under which these welfare reducing, import reducing effects dominate.
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- Lopez, Ramon & Rodrik, Dani, 1989.
"Trade restrictions with imported intermediate inputs : when does the trade balance improve?,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
174, The World Bank.
- Lopez, Ramon E. & Rodrik, Dani, 1990. "Trade restrictions with imported intermediate inputs : When does the trade balance improve?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1-2), pages 329-338, November.
- Lopez, Ramon & Panagariya, Arvind, 1992. "On the Theory of Piecemeal Tariff Reform: The Case of Pure Imported Intermediate Inputs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(3), pages 615-25, June.
- Krueger, Anne O., 1997.
"Free trade agreements versus customs unions,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 169-187, October.
- Carsten Kowalczyk, 1990. "Welfare and Customs Unions," NBER Working Papers 3476, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kala Krishna & Anne Krueger, 1995. "Implementing Free Trade Areas: Rules of Origin and Hidden Protection," NBER Working Papers 4983, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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