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Protectionism Indices for Non-Tariff Measures: An Application to Maximum Residue Levels

  • Li, Yuan
  • Beghin, John C.

We propose aggregation indices of Non-Tariff Measures (NTMs) to quantify their protectionism relative to international standards. We apply the indices to national Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) regulations affecting agricultural and food trade and using a science-based criteria embodied in Codex Alimentarius international standards. The approach links two streams of the NTM literature, one concerned with the aggregation of various NTMs into operational indices for econometric and modeling purposes, and the other attempting to evaluate the protectionism of NTMs. The data used in the application come from a large international dataset on veterinary and pesticide MRLs and CODEX MRL standards for a large set of countries

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Paper provided by Iowa State University, Department of Economics in its series Staff General Research Papers with number 35276.

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Date of creation: 19 Jul 2012
Date of revision:
Publication status: Published in Food Policy 2014, vol. 45, pp. 57-68
Handle: RePEc:isu:genres:35276
Contact details of provider: Postal: Iowa State University, Dept. of Economics, 260 Heady Hall, Ames, IA 50011-1070
Phone: +1 515.294.6741
Fax: +1 515.294.0221
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  1. Achterbosch, Thom J. & Engler, Alejandra & Rau, Marie-Luise & Toledo, Roger, 2009. "Measure the measure: the impact of differences in pesticide MRLs on Chilean fruit exports to the EU," 2009 Conference, August 16-22, 2009, Beijing, China 51765, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  2. Anne-Célia Disdier & Frank van Tongeren, 2010. "Non-Tariff Measures in Agri-Food Trade: What Do the Data Tell Us? Evidence from a Cluster Analysis on OECD Imports," Applied Economic Perspectives and Policy, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 32(3), pages 436-455.
  3. Stéphan Marette & John Beghin, 2010. "Are Standards Always Protectionist?," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 18(1), pages 179-192, 02.
  4. Anne-Célia Disdier & Lionel Fontagné & Mondher Mimouni, 2008. "The Impact of Regulations on Agricultural Trade: Evidence from the SPS and TBT Agreements," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 90(2), pages 336-350.
  5. Drogue, Sophie & DeMaria, Federica, 2011. "Pesticides Residues and Trade: the Apple of Discord?," 2011 International Congress, August 30-September 2, 2011, Zurich, Switzerland 114445, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
  6. Anne-Célia Disdier & Stéphan Marette, 2010. "The Combination of Gravity and Welfare Approaches for Evaluating Nontariff Measures," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 92(3), pages 713-726.
  7. Xiong, Bo & Beghin, John C., 2010. "Does European Aflatoxin Regulation Hurt Groundnut Exporters from Africa?," Staff General Research Papers 31595, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  8. Wilson, John S. & Tsunehiro Otsuki, 2002. "To spray or not to spray? - pesticides, banana exports, and food safety," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2805, The World Bank.
  9. Ronald Fischer & Pablo Serra, 1998. "Standards and Protection," Documentos de Trabajo 45, Centro de Economía Aplicada, Universidad de Chile.
  10. Henk Kox & Arjan Lejour, 2006. "The Effects of the Services Directive on Intra-eu Trade and fdi," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 57(4), pages 747-769.
  11. Trefler, Daniel, 1993. "Trade Liberalization and the Theory of Endogenous Protection: An Econometric Study of U.S. Import Policy," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 101(1), pages 138-60, February.
  12. Mauro Vigani & Valentina Raimondi & Alessandro Olper, 2010. "GMO Regulations, International Trade and the Imperialism of Standards," LICOS Discussion Papers 25510, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  13. Carrère, Céline & De Melo, Jaime, 2011. "Non-Tariff Measures: What Do We Know, What Might Be Done?," Journal of Economic Integration, Center for Economic Integration, Sejong University, vol. 26, pages 169-196.
  14. Beghin, John C. & Disdier, Anne-Celia & Marette, Stephan & van Tongeren, Frank, 2011. "Measuring Costs And Benefits Of Non-Tariff Measures In Agri-Food Trade," Staff General Research Papers 32393, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
  15. Katia Berti & Rod Falvey, . "Does Trade Weaken product Quality Standards?," Discussion Papers 11/24, University of Nottingham, GEP.
  16. Li, Yuan & Beghin, John C., 2012. "A meta-analysis of estimates of the impact of technical barriers to trade," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 497-511.
  17. Niven Winchester & Marie-Luise Rau & Christian Goetz & Bruno Larue & Tsunehiro Otsuki & Karl Shutes & Christine Wieck & Heloisa L. Burnquist & Maurício J. Pinto de Souza & Rosane Nunes de Faria, 2012. "The Impact of Regulatory Heterogeneity on Agri-food Trade," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(8), pages 973-993, 08.
  18. Harrigan, James, 1993. "OECD imports and trade barriers in 1983," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(1-2), pages 91-111, August.
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