# Elsevier

# Economics Letters

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**Series handle:**repec:eee:ecolet

**ISSN:**0165-1765

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### 1989, Volume 31, Issue 4

**371-374 The asymmetric prime : An empirical note***by*Forbes, Shawn M. & Mayne, Lucille S.**375-380 Some empirical evidence on government purchase multipliers***by*Garcia-Mila, Teresa**381-386 Tariff burdens and optimal tariffs under alternative transport cost and market structures***by*Krutilla, Kerry**387-391 Empirical evidence on the properties of exchange rate forecasts and the risk premium***by*Peel, D. A. & Pope, P. F.**393-397 Dollar currency in Latin America : A Bolivian application***by*Melvin, Michael & de la Parra, Gonzalo Afcha**399-402 Small firms in U.S. manufacturing : A first report***by*Acs, Zoltan J. & Audretsch, David B.**403-406 The effect of migration on black incomes : Evidence from the 1940 census***by*Margo, Robert A.**407-410 Equivalence scales : A household production approach***by*Van Hoa, Tran & Ironmonger, D. S.

### 1989, Volume 31, Issue 3

**211-214 A globally concave, symmetric, flexible cost function***by*Lewbel, Arthur**215-219 Advertising and consumer demand: a differential approach***by*Selvanathan, E. Antony**221-224 Profit-sharing in cournot oligopoly***by*Stewart, Geoff**225-230 Solution and estimation of a bivariate interdependent adjustment cost model***by*Kasa, Kenneth**231-233 Structural change and unit root econometrics***by*Reichlin, Lucrezia**235-238 Rules of thumb for comparing multinomial logit and multinomial probit coefficients***by*Stern, Steven**239-243 A computationally simple heteroskedasticity and serial correlation robust standard error for the linear regression model***by*Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.**245-249 Incorporating contemporaneous residual relationships for security prices***by*Jalilvand, Abolhassan & Kryzanowski, Lawrence**251-256 The information in the term structure of eurodollar interest rates***by*Krol, Robert**263-267 Co-integration tests for long run equilibrium in the monetary exchange rate model***by*McNown, Robert & Wallace, Myles**269-272 Dividend policy and tax structure***by*Lim, Kian-Guan**273-276 Viability in multiproduct industries***by*Mester, Loretta J.**277-280 Technological diffusion, vertical product differentiation and quality improvement***by*Stoneman, P.**281-286 Smoke detector effectiveness and the value of saving a life***by*Garbacz, Christopher**287-291 Subjective versus technical risk estimates: do risk communication policies increase consistency?***by*Kerry Smith, V. & Desvousges, William H.**293-298 Evidence on the fit of the log-linear income model versus a general statistical specification***by*Diamond, Charles A. & Simon, Curtis J. & Warner, John T.

### 1989, Volume 31, Issue 2

**113-117 Binary choice probabilities and rankings***by*Fishburn, Peter C. & Falmagne, Jean-Claude**119-123 Modelling technical and allocative inefficiency in a translog production function***by*Kumbhakar, Subal C.**125-128 Effect of time preferences on indexation***by*Bar-Ilan, Avner**129-132 Firm-specific training in an incentive-compatible contract***by*Cothren, Richard**133-137 The expected stop-out price in a discriminating auction***by*Spindt, Paul A. & Stolz, Richard W.**139-143 Symmetric paths and evolution to equilibrium in the discounted prisoners' dilemma***by*Stanford, William**145-149 The Kalman filter model under the assumption of the first-order autoregressive process in the disturbance terms***by*Tanizaki, Hisashi**151-154 Optimal inflation and the government revenue mix***by*Yashiv, Eran**155-158 North American money surprises and financial market reactions: : An empirical note***by*Deaves, Richard**159-162 Should a factor-market distortion be widened?***by*Hayashibara, Masayuki & Jones, Ronald W.**163-167 Optimal commercial policy for an open economy with domestic distortions***by*Chang, Winston W. & Michael, Michael S.**169-171 Tariffs, employment and wage bargaining***by*Yip, Chong K.**173-177 Using country balance sheet data to predict debt rescheduling***by*Lloyd-Ellis, H. & Mckenzie, G. W. & Thomas, S. H.**179-182 The extended linear expenditure system with financial assets***by*Adams, Philip D.**183-187 Structuring an option to facilitate replication with transaction costs***by*Shaffer, Sherrill**189-192 Guaranteed lowest prices: do they facilitate collusion?***by*Logan, John W. & Lutter, Randall W.**193-198 More on the properties of a tax cum subsidy pollution control strategy***by*Yohe, Gary W.**199-204 Market structure and inter-industry wage differences : The case of Taiwan***by*Lai, Cheng-chung**205-209 Updating estimates of union non-union wage differentials in the United States***by*Ashraf, Javed

### 1989, Volume 31, Issue 1

**1-4 Rational performance and gibbard's pareto-consistent libertarian claim***by*Nagahisa, Ryo-ichi**5-7 The kalai/smorodinsky solution with time preferences***by*Anbarci, Nejat**9-12 Bayesian estimator of the linear regression model with an interval constraint on coefficients***by*Hasegawa, Hikaru**13-20 Estimation of multiplicative measurement-error models and some simulation results***by*Lin, An-loh**21-26 Semiparametric estimation and efficiency bounds of binary choice models when the models contain one continuous variable***by*Nawata, Kazumitsu**27-30 Comparative properties of sums of independent binomials with different parameters***by*Sah, Raaj Kumar**31-35 Testing non-linearities in world stock market prices***by*De Gooijer, Jan G.**37-41 On complete securities markets and the martingale property of securities prices***by*Muller, Sigrid M.**43-48 Financial innovations and the interest elasticity of money demand in Canada***by*Chowdhury, Abdur R.**49-53 Evidence on taxation and charitable giving from the 1983 U.S. treasury tax model file***by*Reece, William S. & Zieschang, Kimberly D.**55-59 Differential taxation and the encouragement of risk-taking***by*Sandmo, Agnar**61-64 Purchasing power parity and administered exchange rates***by*Samiei, S. H.**65-69 Fiscal policy, monetary policy and the efficiency of the stock market***by*Hancock, D. G.**71-75 Perfect option hedging and the hedge ratio***by*Muller, Sigrid M.**77-80 (s,S) Pricing policy when adjustment costs affect demand***by*Rosenbaum, David I. & Ye, Meng-Hua**81-85 Exchange rate pass-through and the relative concentration of German and Japanese manufacturing industries***by*Fisher, Eric**87-89 Optimal regulation of a consistent conjectures duopoly***by*Shaffer, Sherrill**91-94 Non-neutral technical change, capital, white-collar and blue-collar labor : Some empirical results***by*Kugler, P. & Muller, U. & Sheldon, G.**95-98 Discrimination in the provision of fringe benefits***by*Heywood, John S.**99-103 Collective bargaining, firm size and pensions in Canada***by*Meng, Ronald**105-108 Korean trade union growth during the period 1962-1984***by*Sharma, Basu**109-112 Migration equilibrium and variational inequalities***by*Nagurney, Anna

### 1989, Volume 30, Issue 4

**269-274 Rational expectations with imperfect competition : A Bertrand-Edgeworth Example***by*Laffont, Jean-Jacques & Maskin, Eric**275-278 Being identical, behaving differently: A theorem on technological diffusion***by*Mariotti, Marco**279-286 On brand proliferation with vertical differentiation***by*Martinez-Giralt, Xavier**287-290 Four paradoxes in U.K. GDP***by*Mills, Terence C.**291-295 A cross-institutional comparison of the extent to which political representatives' voting behavior reflects constituents' preferences***by*Zupan, Mark A.**297-301 Asymptotic efficiency in principal-agent models with hidden information***by*Lockwood, Ben & Thomas, Jonathan**303-306 Interchangeability of equilibrium points in extensive games with complete information***by*Marchi, Ezio**307-311 On 'Maxwell's laws' of individual behaviour***by*Russell, Thomas**313-317 Portfolio choice with non-expected utility in continuous time***by*Svensson, Lars E. O.**319-321 On non-negative solvability of nonlinear input-output systems***by*Szidarovszky, Ferenc**323-326 On allocating the variance of output growth to trend and cycle components***by*Hall, Thomas E. & Windsor Fields, T. & Andrew Fields, M.**327-331 A note on rational speculative bubbles***by*Kompas, Tom & Spotton, Brenda**333-339 'Optimal' model selection when the true relationship is weak and occurs with a delay***by*Holmes, James M. & Hutton, Patricia A.**341-343 Quasi-concave optimisation : Sufficient conditions for a maximum***by*Mukherji, Anjan**345-349 Money demand instability: has it ended?***by*Miller, Stephen M.**351-356 The flypaper effect and the revenue impact of grants-in-aid***by*Islam, Muhammed N. & Choudhury, Saud A.**357-362 Purchasing power parity during the 1920s***by*Ardeni, Pier Giorgio & Lubian, Diego**363-366 Trade balance and exchange rate with the PPP theory***by*Wang, Susheng**367-371 Determinants of earned rates of return on equity of U.S. electric utilities, 1976-1984***by*Makhija, Anil K. & Spiro, Michael H.**373-378 Rates of return in the Indian private sector***by*Rao, M. J. Manohar & Datta, Ramesh C.**379-384 The screening hypothesis and the marginal productivity theory***by*Rao, M. J. Manohar & Datta, Ramesh C.**385-388 Redistributive impact of 'optimal' commodity taxes : Evidence from Indian data***by*Srinivasan, P. V.

### 1989, Volume 30, Issue 3

**185-190 Accommodation, price flexibility and fluctuations***by*Ambler, Steve & Phaneuf, Louis**191-194 Fixed rules and decision rules : Time consistency and subgame perfection***by*Fershtman, Chaim**195-200 The advantageous nature of risk aversion in a three-player bargaining game where acceptance of a proposal requires a simple majority***by*Harrington, Joseph Jr.**201-205 Preliminary-test estimation of the scale parameter in a mis-specified regression model***by*Giles, David E. A. & Clarke, Judith A.**207-209 A note on bias from proxy variables with systematic errors***by*Herbert, John H. & Dinh, Khoan T.**211-216 Expected MSE of errors-in-variables and omitted variables models***by*Thursby, Jerry G.**217-221 Some fine-tuning for dominant diagonal matrices***by*Simon, Carl P.**223-226 Government capital and private output in the United States : Additional evidence***by*Ram, Rati & Ramsey, David D.**227-230 Money-velocity causality detection : Evidence from some developing countries***by*Shams, M.**231-236 Unit root behavior in velocity : Cross-country tests using recursive estimation***by*Siklos, Pierre L.**237-243 On the measurement of employment segregation***by*Silber, Jacques G.**245-248 Testing for long run purchasing power parity : A time series analysis for the greek drachma***by*Karfakis, Costas & Moschos, Demetrios**249-252 A note on partial vertical integration***by*Hendrikse, George & Peters, Hans**253-257 Can the concentration-collusion hypothesis be refuted empirically?***by*Werden, Gregory J. & Williams, Michael A.**259-262 Specific and general training in the theory of labor turnover***by*Kato, Takao**263-268 Attitudes towards unions and union membership***by*Christie, Virginia & Miller, Paul

### 1989, Volume 30, Issue 2

**93-96 Quasi-rational expectations***by*Henocq, Christophe & Kempf, Hubert**97-101 Correlated effectivity functions***by*Abdou, J. & Mertens, J. -F.**103-107 A refinement and extension of the no-envy concept***by*Diamantaras, Dimitrios & Thomson, William**109-115 Intra-experimental income effects and risk aversion***by*McKee, Michael**117-118 Equivalent variation with uncertain prices***by*Scotchmer, Suzanne**119-123 Technological change and embodiment hypothesis***by*Yoon, Y. J.**125-128 Efficiency wages, wage indexation and macroeconomic stabilization***by*Waller, Christopher J.**129-132 An approximation theorem for the polynomial inverse lag***by*Gelles, Gregory M. & Mitchell, Douglas W.**133-136 A test for heteroscedasticity and non-normality of regression residuals : A practical approach***by*Kalirajan, K. P.**137-139 On testing the properties of directly obtained expectations data***by*Peel, D. A.**141-149 Mean square error matrix superiority of estimators under linear restrictions and misspecification***by*Wijekoon, P. & Trenkler, G.**151-156 Two exact, non-arbitrary and general methods of decomposing temporal change***by*Betts, Julian R.**157-159 Are announcement effects time dependent?***by*Cocco, Flavio & Fischer, Andreas**161-164 Mergers, stock prices, and industrial production : Further evidence***by*Guerard, John Jr.**165-169 A note on pricing of hub-and-spoke networks***by*Spiller, Pablo T.**171-174 Immigration and real wages***by*Neary, Peter J.**175-179 Efficiency wages and local versus central wage bargaining***by*Hoel, Michael**181-183 Union responses to changes in non-labour input prices***by*Pemberton, James

### 1989, Volume 30, Issue 1

**1-5 The effect of demand uncertainty on a precommitted monopoly price***by*Kimball, Miles S.**7-10 Classification of budget-invariant monotonic preferences***by*Trockel, Walter**11-17 Anticipated monetary policy in Canada : Some new evidence***by*Sephton, Peter S.**19-26 Risk characteristics of a stein-like estimator for the probit regression model***by*Adkins, Lee C. & Hill, R. Carter**27-29 The box-cox transformation : Power invariance and a new interpretation***by*Gaudry, Marc & Laferriere, Richard**31-36 Comparison of hazard functions with duration dependence and stayer-mover structure with an application to divorce***by*Gonul, Fusun F.**37-40 On the robustness of the F-test to autocorrelation among disturbances***by*Kramer, W.**41-47 A proof of the asymptotic validity of a test for perfect aggregation***by*Pesaran, M. H. & Pierse, R. G.**49-53 An application of extended rational approximants to White's information matrix test***by*Taylor, Larry W.**55-59 Computing returns to scale under alternative models***by*Fare, Rolf & Njinkeu, Dominique**61-65 The firm size effect on stock returns in a developing stock market***by*Wong, Kie Ann**67-70 Tariffs and the current account with short-run capital specificity***by*O'Rourke, Kevin**71-76 The role of consensus and disagreement in portfolio adjustment : A trading volume approach***by*Kim, Youngsoo**77-83 The effect of occupational segregation on the relative earnings of black males***by*Gabriel, Paul E. & Schmitz, Susanne**85-88 A note on union-non-union benefit differentials and size of establishment***by*Bramley, Donald G. & Wunnava, Phanindra V. & Robinson, Michael D.**89-92 The beckmann-zipf effect and plant location under uniform pricing***by*Shieh, Yeung-Nan

### 1989, Volume 29, Issue 4

**281-283 A simple model of product quality with elastic demand***by*Rasmusen, Eric**285-289 A measure of the U.S. output gap***by*Evans, George W.**291-294 Stable implementation of Lindahl allocations***by*de Trenqualye, Pierre**295-298 An information inequality for agency problems***by*Jewitt, Ian**299-302 Fixed cost of work and the demand for lotteries***by*Siow, Aloysius**303-306 Tacit collusion in differentiated cournot games***by*Wernerfelt, Birger**307-310 Relative uncertainty***by*Davis, George K.**311-315 Some evidence on the performance of size correction factors in testing consumer demand models***by*De Boer, P. M. C. & Harkema, R.**317-320 Model selection criteria and granger causality tests : An empirical note***by*Urbain, J. P.**321-323 Competition in the U.S. banking industry***by*Shaffer, Sherrill**325-331 The dividend ratio model and small sample bias : A Monte Carlo study***by*Campbell, John Y. & Shiller, Robert J.**333-338 Bank failures as Poisson variates***by*Davutyan, Nurhan**339-344 Are survey forecasts trusted? : American trade account deficit and yen/dollar rate***by*Wakita, Shigeru**345-347 Theoretical foundations of constant-proportion portfolio insurance***by*Kingston, Geoffrey**349-351 A causality-effect between bid premium and outcome of tender offer***by*Zissu, Anne-Marie & Stone, Charles Austin**353-359 Manufacturing margins : Differences between small and large firms***by*Thurik, A. R. & Van Der Hoeven, W. H. M.**361-364 The wiles test revisited***by*Arabsheibani, Gholamreza**365-371 The structure of adjustment costs for labour in the Dutch manufacturing sector***by*Pfann, Gerald A. & Verspagen, Bart**373-378 Migration and job search in a dualistic economy : A Todaro-Stigler synthesis***by*Mohtadi, Hamid**379-381 A note on mechanization and wage bargaining***by*Moene, Karl Ove

### 1989, Volume 29, Issue 3

**199-203 Uncertain monopoly rent and the social cost of rent seeking***by*Fabella, Raul V.**205-208 Competition between and within teams : The Lifeboat Principle***by*Farrell, Joseph & Lander, Eric**209-213 The demand theory of the weak axioms of revealed preference***by*Hildenbrand, Werner & Jerison, Michael**215-220 The max-min solution for variable threat games***by*Lahiri, Somdeb**221-223 Testing for the length of a distributed lag with a differencing transformation***by*Burt, Oscar R.**225-230 A note on the distribution of the least squares estimator of a random walk with drift***by*Hylleberg, Svend & Mizon, Grayham E.**231-235 Ranking mobility matrices***by*Conlisk, John**237-241 Contagion effect on sovereign interest rate spreads***by*Doukas, John**243-248 Perfect option hedging and the hedge ratio***by*Muller, Sigrid M.**249-251 Volatility-invariant hedging***by*Shaffer, Sherrill**253-255 The information content of post tender offer movement in the price of target shares***by*Zissu, Anne-Marie**257-264 Individual versus social discount rates in allocating depletable natural resources over time***by*Pope, C. III & Perry, Greg**265-269 Insiders and outsiders and efficient asymmetric information contracts***by*Black, J. M. & Bulkley, George**271-273 The statistical structure of real-income changes***by*Theil, Henri & Narduzzi, Susan A.**275-277 On the estimation of localization economies***by*McDonald, John F.

### 1989, Volume 29, Issue 2

**103-107 Quick responses in duopoly ensure monopoly pricing***by*Bhaskar, V.**109-113 On controlling the maintenance of durable goods when contractual enforcement is costly***by*Heimert, A. Michael**115-120 Public debt, voluntary intergenerational transfers and overlapping generations***by*Lopez-Garcia, Miguel-Angel**121-125 Manipulation of the Pareto semi-optimal rule***by*Treglia, Michael**127-128 Equivalent variation with uncertain prices***by*Scotchmer, Suzanne**129-133 A simulation model of saving, residential choice, and bequests of the Japanese elderly***by*Dekle, Robert**135-139 Inflation and relative price variability in Yugoslavia***by*Jurkovic, Lidija**141-145 Four tests for the random walk hypothesis : Power versus robustness***by*Handa, Jagdish & Ma, Barry K.**147-152 Small sample properties of modified Prais-Winston estimators in hypothesis testing in a linear model with ar(1) errors***by*Hashimoto, Noriko**153-156 On approximating the minimum risk estimator in linear regression models***by*Srivastava, A. K. & Tracy, D. S.**157-161 A many good, many person, Corlett-Hague tax rule***by*Gordon, James P. F.**163-166 An empirical study of optimal taxation on Australian financial institutions***by*Van Hoa, Tran & Reece, B. F.**167-171 Central bank intervention with sample selection : Japan 1977-1979***by*Davutyan, Nurhan**173-177 Endogenous monitoring intensity, the period of contractual precommitment, and the slope of the wage-earnings profile***by*Arvan, Lanny**179-182 Market structures, price-cost margins, and unionism : An empirical note***by*Ghosal, Vivek**183-187 A new approach to the economic inequality based upon the permanent income hypothesis***by*Fukushige, Mototsugu**189-193 The distribution of lifetime earnings***by*Nelissen, J. H. M.**195-197 Imprecise testing and endogenous limits to bonds***by*Perri, Timothy

### 1989, Volume 29, Issue 1

**1-6 Zero time preference with discounting***by*Buckholtz, P. & Hartwick, J.**7-11 Is there a conflict between authors and publishers over royalty terms?***by*Gemmell, Norman**13-19 Multivariate decisions with unknown price vector***by*Muliere, Pietro & Scarsini, Marco**21-26 Simple games of market manipulation***by*Vila, Jean-Luc**27-30 An arbitrariness-free method of detecting structural changes***by*Akiba, Hiroya & Waragai, Tomoki**31-35 On the calculation of the information matrix test in the normal linear regression model***by*Hall, Alastair**37-41 Repeated lending and business fluctuations : A note***by*Kendall, Sarah B.**43-47 Debt neutrality, Professor Vickrey and Henry George's 'single tax'***by*Buiter, Willem H.**49-55 Who profits from taxpayer confusion?***by*Scotchmer, Suzanne**57-62 Is greater exchange rate flexibility stabilizing? : Some evidence from US data***by*Kim, Yoonbai