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Land relations under unbearable stress: Rwanda caught in the Malthusian trap

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Cited by:

  1. D. de Walque & P. Verwimp, 2010. "The Demographic and Socio-economic Distribution of Excess Mortality during the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 19(2), pages 141-162, March.
  2. De Luca, Giacomo & Sekeris, Petros G. & Spengler, Dominic E., 2018. "Can violence harm cooperation? Experimental evidence," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 90(C), pages 342-359.
  3. Marijke Verpoorten, 2014. "Growth, poverty and inequality in Rwanda: a broad perspective," Working Papers of LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance 490896, KU Leuven, Faculty of Economics and Business (FEB), LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance.
  4. Frank Cowell & Dirk Van de gaer, 2017. "Condorcet was Wrong, Pareto was Right: Families, Inheritance and Inequality," STICERD - Public Economics Programme Discussion Papers 34, Suntory and Toyota International Centres for Economics and Related Disciplines, LSE.
  5. Kati Schindler, 2010. "Who Does What in a Household after Genocide? Evidence from Rwanda," HiCN Working Papers 90, Households in Conflict Network.
  6. Verpoorten, Marijke, 2009. "Household coping in war- and peacetime: Cattle sales in Rwanda, 1991-2001," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 67-86, January.
  7. Christopher Blattman & Edward Miguel, 2009. "Civil War: A Review of Fifty Years of Research," Working Papers id:2231, eSocialSciences.
  8. Maarten J. Voors & Eleonora E. M. Nillesen & Philip Verwimp & Erwin H. Bulte & Robert Lensink & Daan P. Van Soest, 2012. "Violent Conflict and Behavior: A Field Experiment in Burundi," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(2), pages 941-964, April.
  9. James Fenske, 2011. "Trees, Tenure and Conflict: Rubber in Colonial Benin," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2011-029, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
  10. Teklu, Tesfaye & Lemi, Adugna, 2004. "Factors affecting entry and intensity in informal rental land markets in Southern Ethiopian highlands," Agricultural Economics, Blackwell, vol. 30(2), pages 117-128, March.
  11. Christophe Muller, 2008. "The Measurement Of Poverty With Geographical And Intertemporal Price Dispersion: Evidence From Rwanda," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 54(1), pages 27-49, March.
  12. Leander Heldring, 2019. "The Origins of Violence in Rwanda," HiCN Working Papers 299, Households in Conflict Network.
  13. Takashi Yamano & Yuki Tanaka & Raphael Gitau, 2010. "Haki Yetu (It’s Our Right): Determinants of Post-Election Violence in Kenya," GRIPS Discussion Papers 10-20, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
  14. Mahdi FAWAZ, 2020. "Ressources naturelles et guerres civiles au Moyen-Orient," Bordeaux Economics Working Papers 2020-09, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée (GREThA).
  15. Fenske, James, 2011. "Land tenure and investment incentives: Evidence from West Africa," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(2), pages 137-156, July.
  16. Dominic Rohner, 2010. "From rags to rifles: deprivation, conflict and the welfare state," IEW - Working Papers 463, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
  17. Marcel Fafchamps & Christine Moser, 2003. "Crime, Isolation and Law Enforcement," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 12(4), pages 625-671, December.
  18. Chaoran Chen & Diego Restuccia & Raul Santaeulalia-Llopis, 2017. "The Effects of Land Markets on Resource Allocation and Agricultural Productivity," Working Papers tecipa-592, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
  19. Jean-Philippe Colin & Mourad Ayouz, 2006. "The Development of a Land Market? Insights from Côte d’Ivoire," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 82(3), pages 404-423.
  20. Guirkinger, Catherine & Platteau, Jean-Philippe, 2015. "Transformation of the family farm under rising land pressure: A theoretical essay," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 112-137.
  21. Verpoorten Marijke, 2012. "The Intensity of the Rwandan Genocide: Measures from the Gacaca Records," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 18(1), pages 1-26, April.
  22. Frances Stewart, 2000. "Crisis Prevention: Tackling Horizontal Inequalities," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(3), pages 245-262.
  23. Willa Friedman, 2013. "Local Economic Conditions and Participation in the Rwandan Genocide," HiCN Working Papers 160, Households in Conflict Network.
  24. Olsson, Ola & Siba, Eyerusalem, 2013. "Ethnic cleansing or resource struggle in Darfur? An empirical analysis," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 299-312.
  25. Dufwenberg, Martin & Köhlin, Gunnar & Martinsson, Peter & Medhin, Haileselassie, 2016. "Thanks but no thanks: A new policy to reduce land conflict," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 31-50.
  26. Mayra Buvinic & Monica Das Gupta & Ursula Casabonne & Philip Verwimp, 2013. "Violent Conflict and Gender Inequality: An Overview," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 28(1), pages 110-138, February.
  27. Sam Desiere & Lotte Staelens & Marijke D’Haese, 2016. "When the Data Source Writes the Conclusion: Evaluating Agricultural Policies," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 52(9), pages 1372-1387, September.
  28. Andrea P. Velásquez Guijo, 2008. "The formality in property rights: determinant in the military strategy of armed actors," HiCN Working Papers 39, Households in Conflict Network.
  29. Maarten Voors & Eleonora Nillesen & Philip Verwimp & Erwin Bulte & Robert Lensink & Daan van Soest, 2010. "Does Conflict affect Preferences? Results from Field Experiments in Burundi," HiCN Working Papers 71, Households in Conflict Network.
  30. Renard, Robrecht & Molenaers, Nadia, 2003. "Civil society participation in Rwanda’s Poverty Reduction Strategy," IOB Discussion Papers 2003.05, Universiteit Antwerpen, Institute of Development Policy (IOB).
  31. Barrett, C. B. & Reardon, T. & Webb, P., 2001. "Nonfarm income diversification and household livelihood strategies in rural Africa: concepts, dynamics, and policy implications," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 315-331, August.
  32. Ali, Daniel Ayalew & Deininger, Klaus & Goldstein, Markus, 2014. "Environmental and gender impacts of land tenure regularization in Africa: Pilot evidence from Rwanda," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 262-275.
  33. Ana María Ibañez & Andrés Moya, 2010. "Do Conflicts Create Poverty Traps? Asset Losses and Recovery for Displaced Households in Colombia," NBER Chapters, in: The Economics of Crime: Lessons for and from Latin America, pages 137-172, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  34. Songqing Jin & T. S. Jayne, 2013. "Land Rental Markets in Kenya: Implications for Efficiency, Equity, Household Income, and Poverty," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 89(2), pages 246-271.
  35. Deininger, Klaus & Olinto, Pedro, 2001. "Rural Nonfarm Employment and Income Diversification in Colombia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 455-465, March.
  36. Jayne, T. S. & Yamano, Takashi & Weber, Michael T. & Tschirley, David & Benfica, Rui & Chapoto, Antony & Zulu, Ballard, 2003. "Smallholder income and land distribution in Africa: implications for poverty reduction strategies," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 253-275, June.
  37. Paul Collier & V. L. Elliott & Håvard Hegre & Anke Hoeffler & Marta Reynal-Querol & Nicholas Sambanis, 2003. "Breaking the Conflict Trap : Civil War and Development Policy," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13938.
  38. Gudrun Østby, 2013. "Inequality and political violence: A review of the literature," International Area Studies Review, Center for International Area Studies, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, vol. 16(2), pages 206-231, June.
  39. Graham Harrison, 2016. "Rwanda: an agrarian developmental state?," Third World Quarterly, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(2), pages 354-370, February.
  40. O'Sullivan, Jane N., 2020. "The social and environmental influences of population growth rate and demographic pressure deserve greater attention in ecological economics," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 172(C).
  41. Jérémy Laurent-Lucchetti & Justin Leroux & Bernard Sinclair-Desgagné, 2011. "Splitting an Uncertain (Natural) Capital," Cahiers de recherche 11-01, HEC Montréal, Institut d'économie appliquée.
  42. Joan Esteban & Massimo Morelli & Dominic Rohner, 2015. "Strategic Mass Killings," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 123(5), pages 1087-1132.
  43. Castañeda Dower, Paul & Pfutze, Tobias, 2013. "Specificity of control: The case of Mexico's ejido reform," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 13-33.
  44. Dickson, Alex & MacKenzie, Ian A. & Sekeris, Petros G., 2018. "Rent-seeking incentives in share contests," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 53-62.
  45. Moscona, Jacob & Nunn, Nathan & Robinson, James A, 2018. "Social Structure and Conflict: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa," CEPR Discussion Papers 13030, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  46. Juan Carlos Muñoz-Mora & Santiago Tobón-Zapata & Jesse d'Anjou, 2014. "Does land titling matter? The role of land property rights in the war on illicit crops in Colombia," HiCN Working Papers 168, Households in Conflict Network.
  47. Klaus Deininger & Daniel Ayalew Ali & Takashi Yamano, 2008. "Legal Knowledge and Economic Development: The Case of Land Rights in Uganda," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 84(4), pages 593-619.
  48. Richard Akresh & Philip Verwimp, 2006. "Civil War, Crop Failure, and the Health Status of Young Children," HiCN Working Papers 19, Households in Conflict Network.
  49. Mathis Wackernagel & David Lin & Mikel Evans & Laurel Hanscom & Peter Raven, 2019. "Defying the Footprint Oracle: Implications of Country Resource Trends," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(7), pages 1-21, April.
  50. Petros G. Sekeris, 2014. "The tragedy of the commons in a violent world," RAND Journal of Economics, RAND Corporation, vol. 45(3), pages 521-532, September.
  51. Schindler, Kati & Bruck, Tilman, 2011. "The effects of conflict on fertility in Rwanda," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5715, The World Bank.
  52. Deininger, Klaus & Ali, Daniel Ayalew & Holden, Stein & Zevenbergen, Jaap, 2008. "Rural Land Certification in Ethiopia: Process, Initial Impact, and Implications for Other African Countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 1786-1812, October.
  53. Guirkinger, Catherine & Platteau, Jean-Philippe, 2019. "The dynamics of family systems: lessons from past and present times," CEPR Discussion Papers 13570, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  54. Domènech Feliu, Jordi, 2013. "Land tenure inequality, harvests, and rural conflict ; evidence from Southern Spain in the 1930s," IFCS - Working Papers in Economic History.WH wp13-06, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto Figuerola.
  55. Muraoka, Rie & Jin, Songqing & Jayne, Thomas S., 2014. "Land Access, Land Rental and Food Security: Evidence from Kenya," 2014 Annual Meeting, July 27-29, 2014, Minneapolis, Minnesota 170244, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
  56. Fenske, James, 2014. "Trees, tenure and conflict: Rubber in colonial Benin," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 226-238.
  57. Francis Mwesigye & Tomoya Matsumoto & Keijiro Otsuka, 2014. "Population Pressure, Rural-to-Rural Migration and Evolution of Land Tenure Institutions: The Case of Uganda," GRIPS Discussion Papers 14-09, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
  58. Christopher Blattman & Edward Miguel, 2010. "Civil War," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 48(1), pages 3-57, March.
  59. Marijke Verpoorten, 2014. "Growth, poverty and inequality in Rwanda: a broad perspective," Working Papers of LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance 490896, KU Leuven, Faculty of Economics and Business (FEB), LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance.
  60. Anirban Mitra & Debraj Ray, 2014. "Implications of an Economic Theory of Conflict: Hindu-Muslim Violence in India," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 122(4), pages 719-765.
  61. Bosco Bashangwa Mpozi & Mireille Mizero & Andrew Ogolla Egesa & Paul M. Dontsop Nguezet & Bernard Vanlauwe & Patrice Ndimanya & Philippe Lebailly, 2020. "Land Access in the Development of Horticultural Crops in East Africa. A Case Study of Passion Fruit in Burundi, Kenya, and Rwanda," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 12(7), pages 1-18, April.
  62. Kati Kraehnert & Tilman Brück & Michele Di Maio & Roberto Nisticò, 2019. "The Effects of Conflict on Fertility: Evidence From the Genocide in Rwanda," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 56(3), pages 935-968, June.
  63. Platteau, Jean-Philippe, 2009. "Institutional obstacles to African economic development: State, ethnicity, and custom," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 71(3), pages 669-689, September.
  64. Holden, Stein T. & Deininger, Klaus & Ghebru, Hosaena, 2011. "Can Land Rregistration and Certification Reduce Land Border Conflicts?," CLTS Working Papers 5/11, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Centre for Land Tenure Studies, revised 10 Oct 2019.
  65. Manuel Fern�ndez & Ana Mar�a Ib��ez & Ximena Pe�a, 2014. "Adjusting the Labour Supply to Mitigate Violent Shocks: Evidence from Rural Colombia," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(8), pages 1135-1155, August.
  66. Francis Mwesigye & Tomoya Matsumoto, 2013. "Rural-rural Migration and Land Conflicts: Implications on Agricultural Productivity in Uganda," GRIPS Discussion Papers 13-17, National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.
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  68. Pieter Serneels & Marijke Verpoorten, 2012. "The impact of armed conflict on economic performance: Evidence from Rwanda," CSAE Working Paper Series 2012-10, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  69. Deininger, Klaus & Feder, Gershon, 2001. "Land institutions and land markets," Handbook of Agricultural Economics, in: B. L. Gardner & G. C. Rausser (ed.),Handbook of Agricultural Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 6, pages 288-331, Elsevier.
  70. Ann-Sofie Isaksson, 2013. "Manipulating the Rural Landscape: Villagisation and Income Generation in Rwanda," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies (CSAE), vol. 22(3), pages 394-436, June.
  71. Deininger, Klaus & Jin, Songqing, 2009. "Securing property rights in transition: Lessons from implementation of China's rural land contracting law," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 70(1-2), pages 22-38, May.
  72. Gwendoline Promsopha, 2018. "Risk†Coping, Land Tenure And Land Markets: An Overview Of The Literature," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(1), pages 176-193, February.
  73. Friberg, R & Tinn, K, 2012. "Holdup and Comparative Advantage," Working Papers 12193, Imperial College, London, Imperial College Business School.
  74. Mwesigye, Francis & Matsumoto, Tomoya, 2016. "The Effect of Population Pressure and Internal Migration on Land Conflicts: Implications for Agricultural Productivity in Uganda," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 79(C), pages 25-39.
  75. Leander Heldring, 2014. "State Capacity and Violence: Evidence from the Rwandan genocide," CSAE Working Paper Series 2014-08, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
  76. Ola Olsson, 0. "After Janjaweed? Socioeconomic Impacts of the Conflict in Darfur," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 24(3), pages 386-411.
  77. Cecchi, Francesco & Melesse, Mequanint Biset, 2016. "Formal law and customary change: A lab-in-field experiment in Ethiopia," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 125(C), pages 67-85.
  78. Emilio Depetris-Chauvin & Ömer Özak, 2020. "Borderline Disorder: (De facto) Historical Ethnic Borders and Contemporary Conflict in Africa," Departmental Working Papers 2004, Southern Methodist University, Department of Economics.
  79. Ali,Daniel Ayalew & Deininger,Klaus W. & Ronchi,Loraine, 2015. "Costs and benefits of land fragmentation : evidence from Rwanda," Policy Research Working Paper Series 7290, The World Bank.
  80. Castañeda Dower, Paul & Pfutze, Tobias, 2020. "Land titles and violent conflict in rural Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 144(C).
  81. Boone, Catherine, 2017. "Sons of the soil conflict in Africa: institutional determinants of ethnic conflict over land," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 69794, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  82. Deininger, Klaus & Chamorro, Juan Sebastian, 2002. "Investment and income effects of land regularization : the case of Nicaragua," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2752, The World Bank.
  83. A. Schollaert & D. Van De Gaer, 2003. "Trust, Primary Commodity Dependence and Segregation," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 03/190, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  84. Ansoms, An & Verdoodt, Ann & Van Ranst, Eric, 2008. "The inverse relationship between farm size and productivity in rural Rwanda," IOB Discussion Papers 2008.09, Universiteit Antwerpen, Institute of Development Policy (IOB).
  85. Lagerlöf, Nils-Petter, 2013. "Violence and property rights," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 312-328.
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  87. Holden, Stein T. & Ali, Daniel & Deininger, Klaus & Hilhorst, Thea, 2016. "A Land Tenure Module for LSMS," CLTS Working Papers 1/16, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Centre for Land Tenure Studies, revised 16 Oct 2019.
  88. R. Albert Berry, 1998. "Agrarian Reform, Land Distribution, and Small-Farm Policy as Preventive of Humanitarian Emergencies," Working Papers berry-98-03, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
  89. Fafchamps, Marcel & Shilpi, Forhad, 2008. "Subjective welfare, isolation, and relative consumption," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 43-60, April.
  90. Barrett, Christopher B. & Reardon, Thomas, 2000. "Asset, Activity, And Income Diversification Among African Agriculturalists: Some Practical Issues," Working Papers 14734, Cornell University, Department of Applied Economics and Management.
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  92. Fenske, James, 2014. "Trees, tenure and conflict: Rubber in colonial Benin," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 226-238.
  93. Kramer, Daniel Boyd & Urquhart, Gerald & Schmitt, Kristen, 2009. "Globalization and the connection of remote communities: A review of household effects and their biodiversity implications," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(12), pages 2897-2909, October.
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  95. Perks, Rachel, 2019. "“Mining is in the belly”: The pursuit of individual wealth in Rwanda," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 1-1.
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  97. Jean-Philippe Platteau, 2009. "Institutional Obstacles to African Economic Development: State, Ethnicity, and Custom," Post-Print hal-00726664, HAL.
  98. Goetghebuer, Tatiana & Platteau, Jean-Philippe, 2010. "Inheritance patterns in migration-prone communities of the Peruvian Highlands," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(1), pages 71-87, September.
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  115. Dawson, Neil & Martin, Adrian & Sikor, Thomas, 2016. "Green Revolution in Sub-Saharan Africa: Implications of Imposed Innovation for the Wellbeing of Rural Smallholders," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 204-218.
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  117. Marchiori, Luca & Maystadt, Jean-François & Schumacher, Ingmar, 2012. "The impact of weather anomalies on migration in sub-Saharan Africa," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 355-374.
  118. Ghebru, H. & Holden, S., 2018. "Land Access, Land Rental Markets and Rural Poverty Dynamics in Northern Ethiopian Highlands: Panel Data evidence using Survival Models," 2018 Conference, July 28-August 2, 2018, Vancouver, British Columbia 277440, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  119. Boone, Catherine, 2017. "Sons of the Soil Conflict in Africa: Institutional Determinants of Ethnic Conflict Over Land," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 96(C), pages 276-293.
  120. Deininger, Klaus & Castagnini, Raffaella, 2006. "Incidence and impact of land conflict in Uganda," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 60(3), pages 321-345, July.
  121. Olsson, Ola, 2008. "Resource Conflict in Vulnerable Environments: Three Models Applied to Darfur," Working Papers in Economics 325, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
  122. Muñoz-Mora, Juan Carlos & Tobón, Santiago & d’Anjou, Jesse Willem, 2018. "The role of land property rights in the war on illicit crops: Evidence from Colombia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 103(C), pages 268-283.
  123. Marcel Fafchamps & Agnes R. Quisumbing, 2006. "Household Formation and Marriage Markets," Economics Series Working Papers GPRG-WPS-039, University of Oxford, Department of Economics.
  124. Deininger, Klaus, 2010. "Towards sustainable systems of land administration: Recent evidence and challenges for Africa," African Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, African Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 5(1), pages 1-22, September.
  125. Ali, Daniel Ayalew & Deininger, Klaus & Duponchel, Marguerite, 2017. "New Ways to Assess and Enhance Land Registry Sustainability: Evidence from Rwanda," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 377-394.
  126. Cramer, C., 2002. "Homo Economicus Goes to War: Methodological Individualism, Rational Choice and the Political Economy of War," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(11), pages 1845-1864, November.
  127. Arne Schollaert & Dirk gaer, 2009. "Natural Resources and Internal Conflict," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 44(2), pages 145-165, October.
  128. Marijke verpoorten, 2010. "Detecting Hidden Violence: The Spatial Distribution of Excess Mortality in Rwanda," LICOS Discussion Papers 25410, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
  129. Frances Stewart, "undated". "Global Economic Influences and Policies towards Violent Self-Determination Movements: An Overview," QEH Working Papers qehwps98, Queen Elizabeth House, University of Oxford.
  130. Van Leeuwen, Mathijs & Van Der Haar, Gemma, 2016. "Theorizing the Land–Violent Conflict Nexus," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 94-104.
  131. Brück, Tilman & Schindler, Kati, 2009. "Smallholder Land Access in Post-War Northern Mozambique," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(8), pages 1379-1389, August.
  132. Tom Bundervoet, 2006. "Livestock, Activity Choices and Conflict: Evidence from Burundi," HiCN Working Papers 24, Households in Conflict Network.
  133. Andrey Korotayev & Julia Zinkina, 2015. "East africa in the Malthusian trap? A statistical analysis of financial, economic, and demographic indicators," Papers 1503.08441, arXiv.org.
  134. Jerven, Morten, 2006. "Social Capital as a Determinant of Economic Growth in Africa," Ratio Working Papers 108, The Ratio Institute.
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