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The demographic and socio-economic distribution of excess mortality during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda

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  • de Walque, Damien
  • Verwimp, Philip

Abstract

There is an extensive literature on violent conflicts such as the 1994 Rwandan genocide, but few papers examine the profiles of victims and perpetrators, or more broadly the micro-level dynamics of widespread violence. This paper studies the demographic consequences of the Rwandan genocide and how the excess mortality due to the conflict was distributed in the population. Data collected by the 2000 Demographic and Health Survey indicate that although there were more deaths across the entire population, adult males were the most likely to die. Using the characteristics of the survey respondent as a proxy for the socio-economic status of the family dead, the results also show that individuals with an urban or more educated background were more likely to die. Over and above the human tragedies, a long-term cost of the genocide is the country's loss of productive skills.

Suggested Citation

  • de Walque, Damien & Verwimp, Philip, 2009. "The demographic and socio-economic distribution of excess mortality during the 1994 genocide in Rwanda," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4850, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:4850
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Akresh, Richard & de Walque, Damien, 2008. "Armed Conflict and Schooling: Evidence from the 1994 Rwandan Genocide," IZA Discussion Papers 3516, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Verwimp, Philip, 2003. "The political economy of coffee, dictatorship, and genocide," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 161-181, June.
    3. Philip Verwimp, 2003. "The political economy of coffee, dictatorship and genocide," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/223341, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    4. Andre, Catherine & Platteau, Jean-Philippe, 1998. "Land relations under unbearable stress: Rwanda caught in the Malthusian trap," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 1-47, January.
    5. Emmanuela Gakidou & Gary King, 2006. "Death by survey: Estimating adult mortality without selection bias from sibling survival data," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 43(3), pages 569-585, August.
    6. de Walque, Damien, 2004. "The long-term legacy of the Khmer Rouge period in Cambodia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3446, The World Bank.
    7. Damien Walque, 2005. "Selective Mortality During the Khmer Rouge Period in Cambodia," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 31(2), pages 351-368.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Akresh, Richard & de Walque, Damien, 2008. "Armed Conflict and Schooling: Evidence from the 1994 Rwandan Genocide," IZA Discussion Papers 3516, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. María Alejandra Arias & Ana María Ibáñez & Andres Zambrano, 2017. "Agricultural Production Amid Conflict: Separating the Effects of Conflict into Shocks and Uncertainty," HiCN Working Papers 245, Households in Conflict Network.
    3. Andrea Guariso & Marijke Verpoorten, 2013. "Armed conflict and schooling in Rwanda: Digging deeper," LICOS Discussion Papers 34313, LICOS - Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance, KU Leuven.
    4. Damien De Walque & Deon Filmer, 2013. "Trends and Socioeconomic Gradients in Adult Mortality around the Developing World," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 39(1), pages 1-29, March.
    5. Kati Schindler, 2010. "Who Does What in a Household after Genocide? Evidence from Rwanda," HiCN Working Papers 90, Households in Conflict Network.
    6. Stéphane Helleringer & Gilles Pison & Almamy Kanté & Géraldine Duthé & Armelle Andro, 2014. "Reporting Errors in Siblings’ Survival Histories and Their Impact on Adult Mortality Estimates: Results From a Record Linkage Study in Senegal," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 51(2), pages 387-411, April.
    7. Giulia La Mattina, 2014. "Civil Conflict, Sex Ratio and Intimate Partner Violence in Rwanda," HiCN Working Papers 175, Households in Conflict Network.
    8. Serneels , Pieter & Verpoorten , Marijke, 2012. "The impact of armed conflict on economic performance. Evidence from Rwanda," NEPS Working Papers 5/2012, Network of European Peace Scientists.
    9. Tilman Brück & Patricia Justino & Philip Verwimp & Alexandra Avdeenko & Andrew Tedesco, 2016. "Measuring Violent Conflict in Micro-level Surveys: Current Practices and Methodological Challenges," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 31(1), pages 29-58.
    10. Mevlude Akbulut-Yuksel & Mutlu Yuksel, 2015. "The Long-Term Direct and External Effects of Jewish Expulsions in Nazi Germany," American Economic Journal: Economic Policy, American Economic Association, vol. 7(3), pages 58-85, August.
    11. Schindler, Kati & Bruck, Tilman, 2011. "The effects of conflict on fertility in Rwanda," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5715, The World Bank.
    12. Brück, Tilman & Justino, Patricia & Verwimp, Philip & Avdeenko, Alexandra, 2010. "Identifying Conflict and Violence in Micro-Level Surveys," IZA Discussion Papers 5067, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    13. María Alejandra Arias & Ana María Ibáñez & Andrés Zambrano, 2014. "Agricultural Production Amid Conflict: The Effects of Shocks, Uncertainty, and Governance of Non-State Armed Actors," DOCUMENTOS CEDE 011005, UNIVERSIDAD DE LOS ANDES-CEDE.
    14. Tilman Brück & Patricia Justino & Philip Verwimp & Andrew Tedesco & Alexandra Avdeenko, 2013. "Measuring Conflict Exposure in Micro-Level Surveys," HiCN Working Papers 153, Households in Conflict Network.
    15. Mayra Buvinic & Monica Das Gupta & Ursula Casabonne & Philip Verwimp, 2013. "Violent Conflict and Gender Inequality: An Overview," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 28(1), pages 110-138, February.
    16. Giulia La Mattina, 2014. "Civil Conflict, Sex Ratio and Intimate Partner Violence in Rwanda," Working Papers 0114, University of South Florida, Department of Economics.
    17. La Mattina, Giulia, 2017. "Civil conflict, domestic violence and intra-household bargaining in post-genocide Rwanda," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 124(C), pages 168-198.
    18. Bruno Masquelier, 2013. "Adult Mortality From Sibling Survival Data: A Reappraisal of Selection Biases," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 50(1), pages 207-228, February.
    19. Jorge M. Agüero & Muhammad F. Majid, 2016. "War and the Stock of Human Capital," Working papers 2016-24, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    20. Marion Mercier & Rama Lionel Ngenzebuke & Hugues Philip Verwimp, 2017. "Violence exposure and deprivation: Evidence from the Burundi civil war," Working Papers DT/2017/14, DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation).
    21. repec:eee:ecolet:v:163:y:2018:i:c:p:32-35 is not listed on IDEAS
    22. Almer, Christian & Hodler, Roland, 2015. "The Economic Effects of Political Violence:Evidence from the Genocide in Rwanda," Department of Economics Working Papers 44618, University of Bath, Department of Economics.
    23. Jorge M. Agüero & Muhammad Farhan Majid, 2014. "War and the Destruction of Human Capital," HiCN Working Papers 163, Households in Conflict Network.
    24. Brück, Tilman & Naudé, Wim & Verwimp, Philip, 2013. "Entrepreneurship and Violent Conflict in Developing Countries," WIDER Working Paper Series 028, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).

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    Keywords

    Population Policies; Health Monitoring&Evaluation; Demographics; Adolescent Health;

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