IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/wly/jintdv/v15y2003i4p397-412.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Does inequality cause conflict?

Author

Listed:
  • Christopher Cramer

    (Department of Development Studies, School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS), University of London, London, UK)

Abstract

This paper suggests that economic inequality is important to explaining civil conflict, but that the links are not as direct as is often supposed. It is important to focus on the variety of ways in which inequalities are managed by societies, and the significance of varying kinds of inequality. It is also important to understand the transmission mechanisms that enable a relatively peaceable durable inequality to turn into a violent conflict. These considerations, together with the poor quality of the available inequality data, should make us more cautious about the conclusions reached by cross-country empirical studies into the causes of conflict which ascribe a strong predictive power to measures of inequality. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Suggested Citation

  • Christopher Cramer, 2003. "Does inequality cause conflict?," Journal of International Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(4), pages 397-412.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:jintdv:v:15:y:2003:i:4:p:397-412
    DOI: 10.1002/jid.992
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1002/jid.992
    File Function: Link to full text; subscription required
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Frances Stewart, 2000. "Crisis Prevention: Tackling Horizontal Inequalities," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(3), pages 245-262.
    2. Stephanie Seguino, 1997. "Gender wage inequality and export-led growth in South Korea," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(2), pages 102-132.
    3. Fields, Gary S, 1989. "Changes in Poverty and Inequality in Developing Countries," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 4(2), pages 167-185, July.
    4. Binswanger, Hans P. & Deininger, Klaus & Feder, Gershon, 1995. "Power, distortions, revolt and reform in agricultural land relations," Handbook of Development Economics,in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 42, pages 2659-2772 Elsevier.
    5. Andre, Catherine & Platteau, Jean-Philippe, 1998. "Land relations under unbearable stress: Rwanda caught in the Malthusian trap," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 1-47, January.
    6. Miguel Székely & Marianne Hilgert, 1999. "What's Behind the Inequality we Measure: An Investigation Using Latin American Data," Research Department Publications 4188, Inter-American Development Bank, Research Department.
    7. Collier, Paul & Hoeffler, Anke, 1998. "On Economic Causes of Civil War," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 50(4), pages 563-573, October.
    8. Stephanie Seguino, 2000. "Accounting for Gender in Asian Economic Growth," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(3), pages 27-58.
    9. repec:cup:apsrev:v:81:y:1987:i:02:p:425-451_19 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Cramer, C., 2002. "Homo Economicus Goes to War: Methodological Individualism, Rational Choice and the Political Economy of War," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(11), pages 1845-1864, November.
    11. Nafziger, E.W. & Auvinen, J., 1997. "War, Hunger, and Displacement: An Econometric Investigation into the Sources of Humanitarian Emergencies," Research Paper 142, World Institute for Development Economics Research.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Blog mentions

    As found by EconAcademics.org, the blog aggregator for Economics research:
    1. What’s really happening to inequality?
      by Andy Sumner in Global Dashboard on 2011-07-01 22:37:43

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. MAYSTADT, Jean-François, 2007. "Does inequality make us rebel? A renewed theoretical model applied to South Mexico," CORE Discussion Papers 2007081, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
    2. Joan Esteban & Massimo Morelli & Dominic Rohner, 2015. "Strategic Mass Killings," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 123(5), pages 1087-1132.
    3. Dutta, Indranil & Mishra, Ajit, 2005. "Does Inequality lead to Conflict?," WIDER Working Paper Series 034, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    4. repec:eee:wdevel:v:106:y:2018:i:c:p:187-206 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Baten, Joerg & Mumme, Christina, 2013. "Does inequality lead to civil wars? A global long-term study using anthropometric indicators (1816–1999)," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 56-79.
    6. Jean-François Maystadt, 2008. "Does inequality make us rebel? A revisited theoretical model applied to South Mexico," HiCN Working Papers 41, Households in Conflict Network.
    7. Christian Lessmann, 2016. "Regional Inequality and Internal Conflict," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 17(2), pages 157-191, May.
    8. Jesper Rözer & Gerbert Kraaykamp, 2013. "Income Inequality and Subjective Well-being: A Cross-National Study on the Conditional Effects of Individual and National Characteristics," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 113(3), pages 1009-1023, September.
    9. Christopher Blattman & Edward Miguel, 2009. "Civil War: A Review of Fifty Years of Research," Working Papers id:2231, eSocialSciences.
    10. UNDP Regional Bureau for Africa & Ayodele Odusola & Amarakoon Bandara & Rogers Dhilwayo & Becaye Diarra, "undated". "Inequalities and Conflict in Africa: An empirical investigation," UNDP Africa Policy Notes 2017-11, United Nations Development Programme, Regional Bureau for Africa.
    11. Patricia Justino, 2003. "Redistribution, Inequality and Political Conflict," PRUS Working Papers 18, Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, University of Sussex.
    12. Ana Luiza Cortez & Namsuk Kim, 2012. "Conflict and the identification of the Least Developed Countries: Theoretical and statistical considerations," CDP Background Papers 013, United Nations, Department of Economics and Social Affairs.
    13. Rey, Sergio, 2016. "Space-time patterns of rank concordance: Local indicators of mobility association with application to spatial income inequality dynamics," MPRA Paper 69480, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Rohner, Dominic, 2011. "Reputation, group structure and social tensions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 96(2), pages 188-199, November.
    15. Isaac Kalonda Kanyama, 2017. "Patterns and trends in horizontal inequality in the Democratic Republic of the Congo," WIDER Working Paper Series 151, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    16. Christopher Blattman & Edward Miguel, 2010. "Civil War," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 48(1), pages 3-57, March.
    17. Beyene, Berhe Mekonnen, 2012. "The Effects of International Remittances on Poverty and Inequality in Ethiopia," Memorandum 13/2012, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    18. repec:eee:wdevel:v:104:y:2018:i:c:p:78-96 is not listed on IDEAS
    19. Indranil Dutta & Paul Madden & Ajit Mishra, 2014. "Group Inequality and Conflict," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 82(3), pages 257-283, June.
    20. Willa Friedman, 2013. "Local Economic Conditions and Participation in the Rwandan Genocide," HiCN Working Papers 160, Households in Conflict Network.
    21. Beja, Edsel Jr., 2011. "Subjective well-being approach to the valuation of income inequality," MPRA Paper 34177, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    22. Pinstrup-Andersen, Per & Shimokawa, Satoru, 2008. "Do poverty and poor health and nutrition increase the risk of armed conflict onset?," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 33(6), pages 513-520, December.
    23. Flores Thomas Edward, 2014. "Vertical Inequality, Land Reform, and Insurgency in Colombia," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 20(1), pages 5-31, January.
    24. John D. Huber & Laura Mayoral, 2013. "Inequality, Ethnicity and Civil Conflict," Working Papers 744, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
    25. Matthias Basedau & Wolfram Lacher, 2006. "A Paradox of Plenty? Rent Distribution and Political Stability in Oil States," GIGA Working Paper Series 21, GIGA German Institute of Global and Area Studies.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wly:jintdv:v:15:y:2003:i:4:p:397-412. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/5102/home .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.