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Gender and Competition: Evidence from Academic Promotions in France

Listed author(s):
  • Clément Bosquet

    (Spatial Economic Research Center)

  • Pierre-Philippe Combes

    (Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille)

  • Cecilia Garcia-Peñalosa

    (Aix-Marseille School of Economics)

Differences in promotion across genders are still prevalent in many occupations.Recent work based on experimental evidence indicates that women participate less in or exert lower effort during contests. We exploit the unique features of the promotion system for French academics to look at women's attitudes towards competition in an actual labour market. Using data for academic economists over the period 1991-2008 we find that, conditional on entering the competition, there is no difference in promotions across the genders, which is difficult to reconcile with either discrimination or a poorer performance of women in contests. In contrast, women have a substantially lower probability than men to enter the promotion contest. Our data does not support that this gap is due to differences in costs or in preferences concerning department prestige, indicating that women are less willing than men to take part in contests.

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File URL: http://spire.sciencespo.fr/hdl:/2441/6ggbvnr6munghes9oc99l12b6/resources/2013-17.pdf
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Paper provided by Sciences Po Departement of Economics in its series Sciences Po Economics Discussion Papers with number 2013-17.

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Date of creation: Nov 2013
Handle: RePEc:spo:wpecon:info:hdl:2441/6ggbvnr6munghes9oc99l12b6
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://econ.sciences-po.fr/
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  1. Clément Bosquet & Pierre-Philippe Combes, 2013. "Do Large Departments Make Academics More Productive? Agglomeration and Peer Effects in Research," AMSE Working Papers 1326, Aix-Marseille School of Economics, Marseille, France, revised 10 Apr 2013.
  2. Claudia Olivetti & Barbara Petrongolo, 2005. "Unequal Pay or Unequal Employment? A Cross-Country Analysis of Gender Gaps," Boston University - Department of Economics - Macroeconomics Working Papers Series WP2005-003, Boston University - Department of Economics, revised Oct 2008.
  3. Clément Bosquet & Pierre-Philippe Combes & Cecilia Garcia-Peñalosa, 2013. "Gender and Competition: Evidence from Academic Promotions in France," Sciences Po publications 2013-17, Sciences Po.
  4. Zinovyeva, Natalia & Bagues, Manuel F., 2012. "The Role of Connections in Academic Promotions," IZA Discussion Papers 6821, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  5. Bertrand, Marianne, 2011. "New Perspectives on Gender," Handbook of Labor Economics, Elsevier.
  6. Nabanita Datta Gupta & Anders Poulsen & Marie Claire Villeval, 2013. "Gender matching and competitiveness: experimental evidence," Post-Print halshs-00661770, HAL.
  7. Clément Bosquet & Pierre-Philippe Combes, 2012. "Are academics who publish more also more cited? Individual determinants of publication and citation records," AMSE Working Papers 1236, Aix-Marseille School of Economics, Marseille, France.
  8. Maliniak, Daniel & Powers, Ryan & Walter, Barbara F., 2013. "The Gender Citation Gap in International Relations," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 67(04), pages 889-922, October.
  9. Claudia Goldin & Cecilia Rouse, 1997. "Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of "Blind" Auditions on Female Musicians," NBER Working Papers 5903, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  10. David Blackaby & Alison L Booth & Jeff Frank, 2005. "Outside Offers And The Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence From the UK Academic Labour Market," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 115(501), pages 81-107, 02.
  11. Stijn Kelchtermans & Reinhilde Veugelers, 2013. "Top Research Productivity and Its Persistence: Gender as a Double-Edged Sword," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(1), pages 273-285, March.
  12. Lazear, Edward P & Rosen, Sherwin, 1990. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(1), pages 106-123, January.
  13. Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Zweimuller, Josef, 1997. "Unequal Assignment and Unequal Promotion in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 43-71, January.
  14. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000. "Gender Differences in Pay," NBER Working Papers 7732, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  15. Mareva Sabatier, 2010. "Do Female Researchers Face a Glass Ceiling in France? A Hazard Model of Promotions," Post-Print hal-00825992, HAL.
  16. McDowell, John M & Smith, Janet Kiholm, 1992. "The Effect of Gender-Sorting on Propensity to Coauthor: Implications for Academic Promotion," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 30(1), pages 68-82, January.
  17. Clément Bosquet & Pierre-Philippe Combes & Cecilia Garcia-Peñalosa, 2014. "Gender and Promotions: Evidence from Academic Economists in France," Sciences Po publications 29, Sciences Po.
  18. Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2005. "Do Women Shy Away From Competition? Do Men Compete Too Much?," NBER Working Papers 11474, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  19. Donna K. Ginther & Shulamit Kahn, 2004. "Women in Economics: Moving Up or Falling Off the Academic Career Ladder?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(3), pages 193-214, Summer.
  20. Boschini, Anne & Sjögren, Anna, 2006. "Is Team Formation Gender Neutral? Evidence from Coauthorship Patterns," Working Paper Series 658, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
  21. Farber, Stephen, 1977. "The Earnings and Promotion of Women Faculty: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(2), pages 199-206, March.
  22. Johnson, George E & Stafford, Frank P, 1974. "Lifetime Earnings in a Professional Labor Market: Academic Economists," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(3), pages 549-569, May/June.
  23. Manuel F. Bagüés & Berta Esteve-Volart, 2007. "Can gender parity break the glass ceiling? Evidence from a repeated randomized experiment," Working Papers 2007-15, FEDEA.
  24. Kelchtermans, Stijn & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2005. "Top Research Productivity and its Persistence," CEPR Discussion Papers 5415, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  25. Kathy J. Hayes & Donna K. Ginther, 1999. "Gender Differences in Salary and Promotion in the Humanities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 397-402, May.
  26. Marianne Bertrand & Kevin F. Hallock, 2001. "The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 55(1), pages 3-21, October.
  27. Pierre-Philippe Combes & Laurent Linnemer, 2010. "Inferring Missing Citations: A Quantitative Multi-Criteria Ranking of all Journals in Economics," Working Papers halshs-00520325, HAL.
  28. Uri Gneezy & Muriel Niederle & Aldo Rustichini, 2003. "Performance in Competitive Environments: Gender Differences," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(3), pages 1049-1074.
  29. Combes, Pierre-Philippe & Linnemer, Laurent & Visser, Michael, 2008. "Publish or peer-rich? The role of skills and networks in hiring economics professors," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 423-441, June.
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