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Outside Offers and the Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence from the UK

  • Blackaby, David
  • Booth, Alison L
  • Frank, Jeff

Using a unique data source on academic economist labour market experiences, we explore gender, pay and promotions. In addition to earnings and productivity measures, we have information on outside offers and perceptions of discrimination. In contrast to the existing literature, we find both a gender promotions gap and a within-rank gender pay gap. A driving factor may be the role of outside offers: men receive more outside offers than women of comparable characteristics, and gain higher pay increases in response to outside offers. This may arise due to discrimination, and we find that perceptions of discrimination and also outside job applications correlate with an individual receiving earnings below that expected, given their characteristics.

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Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 3549.

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Date of creation: Sep 2002
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Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:3549
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  1. Lazear, Edward P & Rosen, Sherwin, 1990. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(1), pages S106-23, January.
  2. Joanna Swaffield, 2000. "Gender, Motivation, Experience and Wages," CEP Discussion Papers dp0457, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  3. Booth, Alison L. & Francesconi, Marco & Frank, Jeff, 2000. "Temporary Jobs: Stepping Stones or Dead Ends?," IZA Discussion Papers 205, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
  4. John M. McDowell & Larry D. Singell & Jr & James P. Ziliak, 2001. "Gender and promotion in the economics profession," Industrial and Labor Relations Review, ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 54(2), pages 224-244, January.
  5. Edward P. Lazear, 1996. "Performance Pay and Productivity," NBER Working Papers 5672, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  6. Booth, Alison L & Burton, Jonathan & Mumford, Karen, 2000. "The Position of Women in UK Academic Economics," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 110(464), pages F312-33, June.
  7. Larry D. Singell & John M. McDowell & James P. Ziliak, 1999. "Cracks in the Glass Ceiling: Gender and Promotion in the Economics Profession," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 392-396, May.
  8. Booth, Alison L. & Francesconi, Marco & Frank, Jeff, 2003. "A sticky floors model of promotion, pay, and gender," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 295-322, April.
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