IDEAS home Printed from
MyIDEAS: Log in (now much improved!) to save this paper

Gender and Competition: Evidence from Academic Promotions in France

  • Clément Bosquet
  • Pierre-Philippe Combes
  • Cecilia Garcia-Peñalosa

Differences in promotion across genders are still prevalent in many occupations. Recent work based on experimental evidence indicates that women participate less in or exert lower effort during contests. We exploit the unique features of the promotion system for French academics to look at women’s attitudes towards competition in an actual labour market. Using data for academic economists over the period 1991-2008 we find that, conditional on entering the competition, there is no difference in promotions across the genders, which is difficult to reconcile with either discrimination or a poorer performance of women in contests. In contrast, women have a substantially lower probability than men to enter the promotion contest. Our data does not support that this gap is due to differences in costs or preferences concerning department prestige, indicating that women are less willing than men to take part in contests.

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL:
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 4507.

in new window

Date of creation: 2013
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_4507
Contact details of provider: Postal:
Poschingerstrasse 5, 81679 Munich

Phone: +49 (89) 9224-0
Fax: +49 (89) 985369
Web page:

More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Clément Bosquet & Pierre-Philippe Combes, 2013. "Do Large Departments Make Academics More Productive? Agglomeration and Peer Effects in Research," SERC Discussion Papers 0133, Spatial Economics Research Centre, LSE.
  2. Boschini, Anne & Sjögren, Anna, 2004. "Is Team Formation Gender Neutral? Evidence from coauthorship patterns," Research Papers in Economics 2004:11, Stockholm University, Department of Economics.
  3. Mareva Sabatier, 2010. "Do female researchers face a glass ceiling in France? A hazard model of promotions," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(16), pages 2053-2062.
  4. Clément Bosquet & Pierre-Philippe Combes & Cecilia Garcia-Peñalosa, 2013. "Gender and Competition: Evidence from Academic Promotions in France," Working Papers hal-01070521, HAL.
  5. Kathy J. Hayes & Donna K. Ginther, 1999. "Gender Differences in Salary and Promotion in the Humanities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 397-402, May.
  6. Claudia Olivetti & Barbara Petrongolo, 2005. "Unequal pay or unequal employment?: a cross-country analysis of gender gaps," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 3660, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
  7. Cecilia Rouse & Claudia Goldin, 2000. "Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of "Blind" Auditions on Female Musicians," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(4), pages 715-741, September.
  8. Lazear, Edward P & Rosen, Sherwin, 1990. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(1), pages S106-23, January.
  9. Pierre-Philippe Combes & Laurent Linnemer & Michael Visser, 2006. "Publish or peer-rich ? The role of skills and networks in hiring economics professors," Research Unit Working Papers 0604, Laboratoire d'Economie Appliquee, INRA.
  10. Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Zweimuller, Josef, 1997. "Unequal Assignment and Unequal Promotion in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 43-71, January.
  11. Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2007. "Do Women Shy Away From Competition? Do Men Compete Too Much?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 122(3), pages 1067-1101.
  12. Nabanita Datta Gupta & Anders Poulsen & Marie Claire Villeval, 2013. "Gender Matching And Competitiveness: Experimental Evidence," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 51(1), pages 816-835, 01.
  13. Booth, Alison & Jeff Frank & David Blackaby, 2003. "Outside Offers and the Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence from the UK Academic Labour Market," Royal Economic Society Annual Conference 2003 28, Royal Economic Society.
  14. Stijn Kelchtermans & Reinhilde Veugelers, 2013. "Top Research Productivity and Its Persistence: Gender as a Double-Edged Sword," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 95(1), pages 273-285, March.
  15. Manuel F. Bagüés & Berta Esteve-Volart, 2007. "Can gender parity break the glass ceiling? Evidence from a repeated randomized experiment," Working Papers 2007-15, FEDEA.
  16. Bagues, Manuel F. & Zinovyeva, Natalia, 2012. "The Role of Connections in Academic Promotions," INDEM - Working Paper Business Economic Series id-12-02, Instituto para el Desarrollo Empresarial (INDEM).
  17. Clément Bosquet & Pierre-Philippe Combes, 2012. "Are Academics Who Publish More Also More Cited? Individual Determinants of Publication and Citation Records," Working Papers halshs-00793647, HAL.
  18. Clément Bosquet & Pierre-Philippe Combes & Cecilia Garcia-Peñalosa, 2014. "Gender and Promotions: Evidence from Academic Economists in France," Sciences Po publications 29, Sciences Po.
  19. Donna K. Ginther & Shulamit Kahn, 2004. "Women in Economics: Moving Up or Falling Off the Academic Career Ladder?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 18(3), pages 193-214, Summer.
  20. Farber, Stephen, 1977. "The Earnings and Promotion of Women Faculty: Comment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 67(2), pages 199-206, March.
  21. Kelchtermans, Stijn & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2005. "Top Research Productivity and its Persistence," CEPR Discussion Papers 5415, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  22. Maliniak, Daniel & Powers, Ryan & Walter, Barbara F., 2013. "The Gender Citation Gap in International Relations," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 67(04), pages 889-922, October.
  23. Uri Gneezy & Muriel Niederle & Aldo Rustichini, 2003. "Performance in Competitive Environments: Gender Differences," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(3), pages 1049-1074.
  24. Marianne Bertrand & Kevin F. Hallock, 2001. "The Gender Gap in Top Corporate Jobs," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 55(1), pages 3-21, October.
  25. McDowell, John M & Smith, Janet Kiholm, 1992. "The Effect of Gender-Sorting on Propensity to Coauthor: Implications for Academic Promotion," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 30(1), pages 68-82, January.
  26. Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 2000. "Gender Differences in Pay," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 75-99, Fall.
  27. Blackaby, David & Booth, Alison L & Frank, Jeff, 2002. "Outside Offers and the Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence from the UK," CEPR Discussion Papers 3549, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  28. Johnson, George E & Stafford, Frank P, 1974. "Lifetime Earnings in a Professional Labor Market: Academic Economists," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(3), pages 549-69, May/June.
  29. Bertrand, Marianne, 2011. "New Perspectives on Gender," Handbook of Labor Economics, Elsevier.
  30. Pierre-Philippe Combes & Laurent Linnemer, 2010. "Inferring Missing Citations: A Quantitative Multi-Criteria Ranking of all Journals in Economics," Working Papers halshs-00520325, HAL.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_4507. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Klaus Wohlrabe)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.