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Gender and Competition: Evidence from Academic Promotions in France

  • Clément Bosquet
  • Pierre-Philippe Combes
  • Cecilia Garcia-Peñalosa

Differences in promotion across genders are still prevalent in many occupations. Recent work based on experimental evidence indicates that women participate less in or exert lower effort during contests. We exploit the unique features of the promotion system for French academics to look at women’s attitudes towards competition in an actual labour market. Using data for academic economists over the period 1991-2008 we find that, conditional on entering the competition, there is no difference in promotions across the genders, which is difficult to reconcile with either discrimination or a poorer performance of women in contests. In contrast, women have a substantially lower probability than men to enter the promotion contest. Our data does not support that this gap is due to differences in costs or preferences concerning department prestige, indicating that women are less willing than men to take part in contests.

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Paper provided by CESifo Group Munich in its series CESifo Working Paper Series with number 4507.

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Date of creation: 2013
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Handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_4507
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  1. Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf & Zweimuller, Josef, 1997. "Unequal Assignment and Unequal Promotion in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(1), pages 43-71, January.
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  4. Clément Bosquet & Pierre-Philippe Combes, 2013. "Do large departments make academics more productive? Agglomeration and peer effects in research," Sciences Po publications 9401, Sciences Po.
  5. Clément Bosquet & Pierre-Philippe Combes & Cecilia Garcia-Peñalosa, 2014. "Gender and Promotions: Evidence from Academic Economists in France," Sciences Po publications 29, Sciences Po.
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  8. Muriel Niederle & Lise Vesterlund, 2005. "Do Women Shy Away From Competition? Do Men Compete Too Much?," NBER Working Papers 11474, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  9. Bosquet, Clément & Combes, Pierre-Philippe & Garcia-Penalosa, Cecilia, 2013. "Gender and Competition: Evidence from Academic Promotions in France," CEPR Discussion Papers 9711, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. Boschini, Anne & Sjögren, Anna, 2006. "Is Team Formation Gender Neutral? Evidence from Coauthorship Patterns," Working Paper Series 658, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
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  12. Clément Bosquet & Pierre-Philippe Combes, 2012. "Are academics who publish more also more cited? Individual determinants of publication and citation records," AMSE Working Papers 1236, Aix-Marseille School of Economics, Marseille, France.
  13. McDowell, John M & Smith, Janet Kiholm, 1992. "The Effect of Gender-Sorting on Propensity to Coauthor: Implications for Academic Promotion," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 30(1), pages 68-82, January.
  14. Claudia Goldin & Cecilia Rouse, 1997. "Orchestrating Impartiality: The Impact of "Blind" Auditions on Female Musicians," NBER Working Papers 5903, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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  17. Olivetti, Claudia & Petrongolo, Barbara, 2006. "Unequal Pay or Unequal Employment? A Cross-Country Analysis of Gender Gaps," CEPR Discussion Papers 5506, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  18. Maliniak, Daniel & Powers, Ryan & Walter, Barbara F., 2013. "The Gender Citation Gap in International Relations," International Organization, Cambridge University Press, vol. 67(04), pages 889-922, October.
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  24. Blackaby, David & Booth, Alison L & Frank, Jeff, 2002. "Outside Offers and the Gender Pay Gap: Empirical Evidence from the UK," CEPR Discussion Papers 3549, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  25. Lazear, Edward P & Rosen, Sherwin, 1990. "Male-Female Wage Differentials in Job Ladders," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 8(1), pages S106-23, January.
  26. Kathy J. Hayes & Donna K. Ginther, 1999. "Gender Differences in Salary and Promotion in the Humanities," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 397-402, May.
  27. Johnson, George E & Stafford, Frank P, 1974. "Lifetime Earnings in a Professional Labor Market: Academic Economists," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(3), pages 549-69, May/June.
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  29. Uri Gneezy & Muriel Niederle & Aldo Rustichini, 2003. "Performance in Competitive Environments: Gender Differences," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(3), pages 1049-1074.
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