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How Competitive are Female Professionals? A Tale of Identity Conflict

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  • C. Bram Cadsby

    () (Department of Economics and Finance, University of Guelph)

  • Maros Servatka

    () (Department of Economics and Finance, University of Canterbury)

  • Fei Song

    () (Ted Rogers School of Business Management, Ryerson University)

Abstract

We develop and test experimentally the argument that gender/family and/or professional identities, activated through psychological priming, may influence preference for competition. We focus on female professionals for whom these identities may conflict and male professionals for whom they may be reinforcing. We primed MBA-student participants by administering questionnaires that concerned either gender/family or professional issues. Subsequently, participants undertook a real-effort task and chose between piece-rate and competitive-tournament compensation. Identity priming, moderated by gender, significantly affected preference for competitive pay. This relationship was partially mediated by beliefs about oneÕs performance ranking. The implications of our results are profound. The decision to avoid competition made by many female professionals may be driven not by lack of ability, but rather by the increased salience of gender/family identity, influenced by marriage and motherhood over time. Indeed, activation of internalized identities might not only drive the experimental results, but also have strong implications for career choices and job performance of women, thus contributing to the observed gender and motherhood wage gaps.

Suggested Citation

  • C. Bram Cadsby & Maros Servatka & Fei Song, 2011. "How Competitive are Female Professionals? A Tale of Identity Conflict," Working Papers 1108, University of Guelph, Department of Economics and Finance.
  • Handle: RePEc:gue:guelph:2011-08.
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    1. repec:eee:deveco:v:129:y:2017:i:c:p:47-57 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Auspurg, Katrin & Iacovou, Maria & Nicoletti, Cheti, 2014. "Housework Share between Partners: Experimental Evidence on Gender Identity," IZA Discussion Papers 8569, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    3. Goodall, Amanda H. & Osterloh, Margit, 2015. "Women Have to Enter the Leadership Race to Win: Using Random Selection to Increase the Supply of Women into Senior Positions," IZA Discussion Papers 9331, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
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    6. Aurelie Dariel & Curtis Kephart & Nikos Nikiforakis & Christina Zenker, 2017. "Emirati women do not shy away from competition: evidence from a patriarchal society in transition," Journal of the Economic Science Association, Springer;Economic Science Association, vol. 3(2), pages 121-136, December.
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    11. Drupp, Moritz A. & Khadjavi, Menusch & Riekhof, Marie-Catherine & Voss, Rüdiger, 2017. "Professional identity and the gender gap in risk-taking: Evidence from a field experiment with scientists," Kiel Working Papers 2077, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
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    15. Jeffrey A. Flory & Andreas Leibbrandt & Christina Rott & Olga Stoddard, 2018. "Increasing Workplace Diversity: Evidence from a Recruiting Experiment at a Fortune 500 Company," CESifo Working Paper Series 7025, CESifo Group Munich.
    16. Bedi, Arjun S. & Majilla, Tanmoy & Rieger, Matthias, 2018. "Gender Norms and the Motherhood Penalty: Experimental Evidence from India," IZA Discussion Papers 11360, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Experiment; Gender; Competitiveness; Identity; Priming; Family; Tournament;

    JEL classification:

    • C91 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Design of Experiments - - - Laboratory, Individual Behavior
    • D03 - Microeconomics - - General - - - Behavioral Microeconomics: Underlying Principles
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • J33 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Compensation Packages; Payment Methods
    • M52 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Personnel Economics - - - Compensation and Compensation Methods and Their Effects

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