IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/p/red/sed016/794.html
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The Impact of Alternative Transitions to Normalized Monetary Policy

Author

Listed:
  • Serguei Maliar

    (Santa Clara University)

  • John Taylor

    (Stanford University)

  • Lilia Maliar

    (Stanford University)

Abstract

We investigate the effects of a regime shift in monetary policy on macroeconomic variables and welfare in the context of a model with staggered price setting and a Taylor rule. The studied economy is nonstationary because the parameters in the Taylor rule may change over time. We analyze how such time-dependent monetary policy can affect economy. In particular, the EFP allows us to study questions like "Should the Fed normalize policy now or later?"; "Should the Fed normalize policy gradually or all at once?"; and , "Should the Fed announce the regime shift publicly in advance?". We also assess the effects of anchoring inflation expectations of economic agents. Finally, we consider the effects of the zero lower bound (ZLB) on nominal interest rates, and we analyze and compare different transitions out of the ZLB

Suggested Citation

  • Serguei Maliar & John Taylor & Lilia Maliar, 2016. "The Impact of Alternative Transitions to Normalized Monetary Policy," 2016 Meeting Papers 794, Society for Economic Dynamics.
  • Handle: RePEc:red:sed016:794
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://economicdynamics.org/meetpapers/2016/paper_794.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Kollmann, Robert & Maliar, Serguei & Malin, Benjamin A. & Pichler, Paul, 2011. "Comparison of solutions to the multi-country Real Business Cycle model," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 186-202, February.
    2. Lim, G.C. & McNelis, Paul D., 2008. "Computational Macroeconomics for the Open Economy," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262123061, December.
    3. Lawrence F. Katz & Kevin M. Murphy, 1992. "Changes in Relative Wages, 1963–1987: Supply and Demand Factors," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(1), pages 35-78.
    4. Richard Clarida & Jordi Galí & Mark Gertler, 2000. "Monetary Policy Rules and Macroeconomic Stability: Evidence and Some Theory," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 115(1), pages 147-180.
    5. Selahattin Imrohoroglu & Ayse Imrohoroglu & Kaiji Chen, 2006. "The Japanese Saving Rate," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(5), pages 1850-1858, December.
    6. Thomas A. Lubik & Frank Schorfheide, 2004. "Testing for Indeterminacy: An Application to U.S. Monetary Policy," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(1), pages 190-217, March.
    7. Maliar, Lilia & Maliar, Serguei, 2013. "Envelope condition method versus endogenous grid method for solving dynamic programming problems," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 120(2), pages 262-266.
    8. Kenneth L. Judd & Lilia Maliar & Serguei Maliar, 2011. "Numerically stable and accurate stochastic simulation approaches for solving dynamic economic models," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 2(2), pages 173-210, July.
    9. Jerome Adda & Russell W. Cooper, 2003. "Dynamic Economics: Quantitative Methods and Applications," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262012014, December.
    10. Christiano, Lawrence J. & Fisher, Jonas D. M., 2000. "Algorithms for solving dynamic models with occasionally binding constraints," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 24(8), pages 1179-1232, July.
    11. Arellano, Cristina & Maliar, Lilia & Maliar, Serguei & Tsyrennikov, Viktor, 2016. "Envelope condition method with an application to default risk models," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 436-459.
    12. Maliar, Lilia & Maliar, Serguei, 2004. "Endogenous Growth And Endogenous Business Cycles," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 8(5), pages 559-581, November.
    13. Olivier Blanchard & John Simon, 2001. "The Long and Large Decline in U.S. Output Volatility," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 32(1), pages 135-174.
    14. Stephanie Schmitt‐Grohé & Martín Uribe, 2012. "What's News in Business Cycles," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 80(6), pages 2733-2764, November.
    15. Brock, William A. & Gale, David, 1969. "Optimal growth under factor augmenting progress," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 229-243, October.
    16. Fair, Ray C & Taylor, John B, 1983. "Solution and Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Dynamic Nonlinear Rational Expectations Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 51(4), pages 1169-1185, July.
    17. Carroll, Christopher D., 2006. "The method of endogenous gridpoints for solving dynamic stochastic optimization problems," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 91(3), pages 312-320, June.
    18. Manoj Atolia & Edward F. Buffie, 2004. "Reverse Shooting Made Easy: Solving for the Global Nonlinear Saddle Path," Working Papers wp2009_01_01, Department of Economics, Florida State University, revised Jan 2009.
    19. Timothy Cogley & Thomas J. Sargent, 2005. "Drift and Volatilities: Monetary Policies and Outcomes in the Post WWII U.S," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 8(2), pages 262-302, April.
    20. Gary Hansen & Selahattin Imrohoroglu, 2016. "Fiscal Reform and Government Debt in Japan: A Neoclassical Perspective," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 21, pages 201-224, July.
    21. Barsky, Robert B & Miron, Jeffrey A, 1989. "The Seasonal Cycle and the Business Cycle," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(3), pages 503-534, June.
    22. Foerster, Andrew & Rubio-Ramírez, Juan Francisco & Waggoner, Daniel F & Zha, Tao, 2013. "Perturbation Methods for Markov-Switching DSGE Models," CEPR Discussion Papers 9464, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    23. Braun, R. Anton & Körber, Lena Mareen, 2011. "New Keynesian dynamics in a low interest rate environment," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 2213-2227.
    24. Dirk Krueger & Felix Kubler, 2006. "Pareto-Improving Social Security Reform when Financial Markets are Incomplete!?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(3), pages 737-755, June.
    25. Judd, Kenneth L. & Maliar, Lilia & Maliar, Serguei & Valero, Rafael, 2014. "Smolyak method for solving dynamic economic models: Lagrange interpolation, anisotropic grid and adaptive domain," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 92-123.
    26. Loukas Karabarbounis & Brent Neiman, 2014. "Capital Depreciation and Labor Shares Around the World: Measurement and Implications," NBER Working Papers 20606, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    27. Schmitt-Grohe, Stephanie & Uribe, Martin, 2004. "Solving dynamic general equilibrium models using a second-order approximation to the policy function," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 28(4), pages 755-775, January.
    28. Den Haan, Wouter J., 2010. "Comparison of solutions to the incomplete markets model with aggregate uncertainty," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 4-27, January.
    29. H. M. Amman & D. A. Kendrick & J. Rust (ed.), 1996. "Handbook of Computational Economics," Handbook of Computational Economics, Elsevier, edition 1, volume 1, number 1, 00.
    30. Lionel W. McKenzie, 2012. "turnpike theory," The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics,, Palgrave Macmillan.
    31. Taylor, John B & Uhlig, Harald, 1990. "Solving Nonlinear Stochastic Growth Models: A Comparison of Alternative Solution Methods," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 8(1), pages 1-17, January.
    32. Daron Acemoglu, 2002. "Directed Technical Change," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 69(4), pages 781-809.
    33. Troy Davig & Eric M. Leeper, 2007. "Generalizing the Taylor Principle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(3), pages 607-635, June.
    34. Aruoba, S. Boragan & Fernandez-Villaverde, Jesus & Rubio-Ramirez, Juan F., 2006. "Comparing solution methods for dynamic equilibrium economies," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 30(12), pages 2477-2508, December.
    35. Joshi, Sumit, 1997. "Turnpike Theorems in Nonconvex Nonstationary Environments," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 38(1), pages 225-248, February.
    36. Manoj Atolia & Edward Buffie, 2009. "Smart Forward Shooting," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 33(1), pages 1-30, February.
    37. Judd, Kenneth L., 2002. "The parametric path method: an alternative to Fair-Taylor and L-B-J for solving perfect foresight models," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 26(9-10), pages 1557-1583, August.
    38. Grüne, Lars & Semmler, Willi & Stieler, Marleen, 2015. "Using nonlinear model predictive control for dynamic decision problems in economics," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 112-133.
    39. Farmer, Roger E.A. & Waggoner, Daniel F. & Zha, Tao, 2011. "Minimal state variable solutions to Markov-switching rational expectations models," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 2150-2166.
    40. Francois Gourio, 2012. "Disaster Risk and Business Cycles," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 102(6), pages 2734-2766, October.
    41. Chen, Baoline, 1999. "Numerical Solution of an Endogenous Growth Model with Threshold Learning," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 13(3), pages 227-247, June.
    42. Daron Acemoglu, 2003. "Labor- And Capital-Augmenting Technical Change," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 1(1), pages 1-37, March.
    43. Collard, Fabrice & Juillard, Michel, 2001. "Accuracy of stochastic perturbation methods: The case of asset pricing models," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 25(6-7), pages 979-999, June.
    44. Jasmina Hasanhodzic & Laurence J. Kotlikoff, 2013. "Generational Risk–Is It a Big Deal?: Simulating an 80-Period OLG Model with Aggregate Shocks," BYU Macroeconomics and Computational Laboratory Working Paper Series 2013-01, Brigham Young University, Department of Economics, BYU Macroeconomics and Computational Laboratory.
    45. Andrew Foerster & Juan F. Rubio‐Ramírez & Daniel F. Waggoner & Tao Zha, 2016. "Perturbation methods for Markov‐switching dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 7(2), pages 637-669, July.
    46. Fabio Canova, 2009. "What Explains The Great Moderation in the U.S.? A Structural Analysis," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 7(4), pages 697-721, June.
    47. Marimon, Ramon & Scott, Andrew (ed.), 1999. "Computational Methods for the Study of Dynamic Economies," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198294979.
    48. John B. Taylor, 2012. "Monetary Policy Rules Work and Discretion Doesn’t: A Tale of Two Eras," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 44(6), pages 1017-1032, September.
    49. John Stachurski, 2009. "Economic Dynamics: Theory and Computation," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262012774, December.
    50. Tapan Mitra & Yaw Nyarko, 1991. "On the existence of optimal processes in non-stationary environments," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 53(3), pages 245-270, October.
    51. Kenneth L. Judd, 1998. "Numerical Methods in Economics," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262100711, December.
    52. Christiano, Lawrence J. & Todd, Richard M., 2002. "The conventional treatment of seasonality in business cycle analysis: does it create distortions?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 335-364, March.
    53. Paul Beaudry & Franck Portier, 2006. "Stock Prices, News, and Economic Fluctuations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(4), pages 1293-1307, September.
    54. Nicholas Bloom, 2009. "The Impact of Uncertainty Shocks," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 77(3), pages 623-685, May.
    55. den Haan, Wouter J & Marcet, Albert, 1990. "Solving the Stochastic Growth Model by Parameterizing Expectations," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 8(1), pages 31-34, January.
    56. King, Robert G. & Plosser, Charles I. & Rebelo, Sergio T., 1988. "Production, growth and business cycles : II. New directions," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(2-3), pages 309-341.
    57. Krueger, Dirk & Kubler, Felix, 2004. "Computing equilibrium in OLG models with stochastic production," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 28(7), pages 1411-1436, April.
    58. Gaspar, Jess & L. Judd, Kenneth, 1997. "Solving Large-Scale Rational-Expectations Models," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 1(1), pages 45-75, January.
    59. Christopher A. Sims & Tao Zha, 2006. "Were There Regime Switches in U.S. Monetary Policy?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(1), pages 54-81, March.
    60. Brock, W. A. & Majumdar, M., 1978. "Global asymptotic stability results for multisector models of optimal growth under uncertainty when future utilities are discounted," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 18(2), pages 225-243, August.
    61. Brock, William A. & Mirman, Leonard J., 1972. "Optimal economic growth and uncertainty: The discounted case," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 479-513, June.
    62. Rainer Klump & Peter McAdam & Alpo Willman, 2007. "Factor Substitution and Factor-Augmenting Technical Progress in the United States: A Normalized Supply-Side System Approach," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 89(1), pages 183-192, February.
    63. Per Krusell & Lee E. Ohanian & JosÈ-Victor RÌos-Rull & Giovanni L. Violante, 2000. "Capital-Skill Complementarity and Inequality: A Macroeconomic Analysis," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 68(5), pages 1029-1054, September.
    64. Saijo, Hikaru, 2013. "Estimating DSGE models using seasonally adjusted and unadjusted data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 173(1), pages 22-35.
    65. King, Robert G. & Plosser, Charles I. & Rebelo, Sergio T., 1988. "Production, growth and business cycles : I. The basic neoclassical model," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(2-3), pages 195-232.
    66. Hopenhayn, Hugo A & Prescott, Edward C, 1992. "Stochastic Monotonicity and Stationary Distributions for Dynamic Economies," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(6), pages 1387-1406, November.
    67. Majumdar, Mukul & Zilcha, Itzhak, 1987. "Optimal growth in a stochastic environment: Some sensitivity and turnpike results," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 116-133, October.
    68. Mirman, Leonard J. & Zilcha, Itzhak, 1977. "Characterizing optimal policies in a one-sector model of economic growth under uncertainty," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 389-401, April.
    69. Lilia Maliar & Serguei Maliar, 2015. "Merging simulation and projection approaches to solve high‐dimensional problems with an application to a new Keynesian model," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 6(1), pages 1-47, March.
    70. Hansen, Lars Peter & Sargent, Thomas J., 1993. "Seasonality and approximation errors in rational expectations models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 55(1-2), pages 21-55.
    71. Lars Peter Hansen & Thomas J. Sargent, 2013. "Recursive Models of Dynamic Linear Economies," Economics Books, Princeton University Press, edition 1, number 10141, April.
    72. Juan C. Conesa & Dirk Krueger, 1999. "Social Security Reform with Heterogeneous Agents," Review of Economic Dynamics, Elsevier for the Society for Economic Dynamics, vol. 2(4), pages 757-795, October.
    73. Gagnon, Joseph E. & Taylor, John B., 1990. "Solving stochastic equilibrium models with the extended path method," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 251-257, July.
    74. Judd, Kenneth L., 1992. "Projection methods for solving aggregate growth models," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 58(2), pages 410-452, December.
    75. Brock, William A & Mirman, Leonard J, 1973. "Optimal Economic Growth and Uncertainty: The No Discounting Case," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 14(3), pages 560-573, October.
    76. Mitra, Tapan & Zilcha, Itzhak, 1981. "On Optimal Economic Growth with Changing Technology and Tastes: Characterization and Stability Results," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 22(1), pages 221-238, February.
    77. Frank Smets & Raf Wouters, 2003. "An Estimated Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium Model of the Euro Area," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 1(5), pages 1123-1175, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Lilia Maliar & Serguei Maliar & John B. Taylor & Inna Tsener, 2020. "A tractable framework for analyzing a class of nonstationary Markov models," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 11(4), pages 1289-1323, November.
    2. Fernández-Villaverde, J. & Rubio-Ramírez, J.F. & Schorfheide, F., 2016. "Solution and Estimation Methods for DSGE Models," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & Harald Uhlig (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 2, chapter 0, pages 527-724, Elsevier.
    3. Kenneth L. Judd & Lilia Maliar & Serguei Maliar, 2014. "Lower Bounds on Approximation Errors: Testing the Hypothesis That a Numerical Solution Is Accurate?," BYU Macroeconomics and Computational Laboratory Working Paper Series 2014-06, Brigham Young University, Department of Economics, BYU Macroeconomics and Computational Laboratory.
    4. Arellano, Cristina & Maliar, Lilia & Maliar, Serguei & Tsyrennikov, Viktor, 2016. "Envelope condition method with an application to default risk models," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 436-459.
    5. Judd, Kenneth L. & Maliar, Lilia & Maliar, Serguei & Valero, Rafael, 2014. "Smolyak method for solving dynamic economic models: Lagrange interpolation, anisotropic grid and adaptive domain," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 92-123.
    6. Lars J. Olson & Santanu Roy, 2006. "Theory of Stochastic Optimal Economic Growth," Springer Books, in: Rose-Anne Dana & Cuong Le Van & Tapan Mitra & Kazuo Nishimura (ed.), Handbook on Optimal Growth 1, chapter 11, pages 297-335, Springer.
    7. Kenneth L. Judd & Lilia Maliar & Serguei Maliar & Inna Tsener, 2017. "How to solve dynamic stochastic models computing expectations just once," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 8(3), pages 851-893, November.
    8. Lilia Maliar & Serguei Maliar, 2016. "Ruling Out Multiplicity of Smooth Equilibria in Dynamic Games: A Hyperbolic Discounting Example," Dynamic Games and Applications, Springer, vol. 6(2), pages 243-261, June.
    9. Kenneth L. Judd & Lilia Maliar & Serguei Maliar, 2010. "A Cluster-Grid Projection Method: Solving Problems with High Dimensionality," NBER Working Papers 15965, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Andrew Foerster & Juan F. Rubio‐Ramírez & Daniel F. Waggoner & Tao Zha, 2016. "Perturbation methods for Markov‐switching dynamic stochastic general equilibrium models," Quantitative Economics, Econometric Society, vol. 7(2), pages 637-669, July.
    11. Kenneth Judd & Lilia Maliar & Serguei Maliar, 2009. "Numerically Stable Stochastic Simulation Approaches for Solving Dynamic Economic Models," NBER Working Papers 15296, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Paul Castillo & Carlos Montoro & Vicente Tuesta, 2005. "Inflation Premium and Oil Price Volatility," Working Papers Central Bank of Chile 350, Central Bank of Chile.
    13. John Stachurski, 2009. "Economic Dynamics: Theory and Computation," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262012774, December.
    14. Aruoba, S. Boragan & Fernandez-Villaverde, Jesus & Rubio-Ramirez, Juan F., 2006. "Comparing solution methods for dynamic equilibrium economies," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 30(12), pages 2477-2508, December.
    15. Shayan Zakipour-Saber, 2019. "Monetary policy regimes and inflation persistence in the United Kingdom," Working Papers 895, Queen Mary University of London, School of Economics and Finance.
    16. Joshi, Sumit, 2003. "The stochastic turnpike property without uniformity in convex aggregate growth models," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 27(7), pages 1289-1315, May.
    17. Andrew T. Foerster, 2016. "Monetary Policy Regime Switches And Macroeconomic Dynamics," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 57(1), pages 211-230, February.
    18. Kollmann, Robert & Maliar, Serguei & Malin, Benjamin A. & Pichler, Paul, 2011. "Comparison of solutions to the multi-country Real Business Cycle model," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 186-202, February.
    19. Jesús Fernández-Villaverde, 2010. "The econometrics of DSGE models," SERIEs: Journal of the Spanish Economic Association, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 1(1), pages 3-49, March.
    20. Julien Albertini & Stéphane Moyen, 2020. "A General and Efficient Method for Solving Regime-Switching DSGE Models," Working Papers 2035, Groupe d'Analyse et de Théorie Economique Lyon St-Étienne (GATE Lyon St-Étienne), Université de Lyon.

    More about this item

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:red:sed016:794. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/sedddea.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Christian Zimmermann (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/sedddea.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.